Umhlabathi we-Martian: izici kanye nokutholakele

inhlabathi ye-martian

Izakhiwo ze-geological ze-Mars zihlanganisa inhlabathi ye-martian, okuwungqimba olungaphandle kakhulu lwe-regolith ecolisekile emboza ubuso beplanethi. Inhlabathi yaseMartian icwaningwa ososayensi ukuze bakhiphe ulwazi oluningi mayelana neplanethi. Kuphinde kwenziwe umzamo wokufunda mayelana nethuba lokuphila ku-Mars esikhathini esizayo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke okudingeka ukwazi mayelana nenhlabathi ye-Martian, izici zayo kanye nokutholakele.

Izici zenhlabathi ye-Martian

umhlabathi ongavundile

Izakhiwo zenhlabathi yeMartian zingahluka kakhulu kulezo zenhlabathi etholakala eMhlabeni. Uma bebhekisela enhlabathini ye-Martian, ososayensi ngokuvamile babhekisela ezinhlayiyeni ezicolekile ze-regolith, okuyizinto ezixegayo ezimboza idwala eliqinile phezu komhlaba. Ngokungafani nenhlabathi yasemhlabeni, inhlabathi ye-Martian ayinazo izinto eziphilayo. Kunalokho, Ososayensi bamaplanethi bachaza umhlabathi ngokusekelwe emsebenzini wawo, bewuhlukanisa namadwala.

Amadwala, kulo mongo, ayizinto ezinkulu ezikala u-10 cm noma ngaphezulu, njengezingcezu eziveziwe, ama-breccias nama-outcrops, ane-inertia ephezulu eshisayo futhi ehlala imile ngaphansi kwezimo zomoya zamanje. Lawa matshe athathwa njengamasayizi amakhulu okusanhlamvu kunamatshe e-cobblestone ngokwesilinganiso sase-Wentworth. Lokhu Incazelo yokusebenza ivumela ukuvumelana phakathi kwezindlela zokuzwa okukude ze-Martian ezisebenzisa izingxenye ezihlukahlukene ze-electromagnetic spectrum.

Umhlabathi, ngakolunye uhlangothi, uhlanganisa zonke ezinye izinto ngokuvamile ezingahlangani futhi ezinganyakaziswa umoya, ngisho noma zizincane. Ngakho-ke, inhlabathi ye-Mars ihlanganisa izinhlobonhlobo zezingxenye ze-regolith ezikhonjwe ezindaweni ezihlukene zokufika. Izibonelo eziningana ezivamile, ezifana Imibhede, ama-clasts, ama-concretions, i-drift, uthuli, izingcezu zamatshe nesihlabathi kufakiwe kulesi sigaba.

Kunencazelo esanda kuphakanyiswa yenhlabathi njengoba itholakala ezindaweni zasemkhathini njengama-asteroid namasathelayithi. Ngale ncazelo, inhlabathi iwungqimba olungahlanganisiwe lwamaminerali noma izinto eziphilayo ezigugulwe ngamakhemikhali ezinogqinsi olungaphezu kwesentimitha elilodwa. Ingase iqukathe noma ingabi nazo izingxenye eziwugqinsi nezingxenye zikasimende.

Izinhlayiya ezinhle ezitholakala othulini lwe-Martian ngokuvamile zincane nakakhulu kunalezo ezitholakala enhlabathini ye-Martian, zinesilinganiso esingaphansi kwama-microns angu-30 ububanzi (okuhle ngokuphindwe izikhathi ezingu-30 kunempushana ye-talcum yezingane). Ukuntuleka kokuqonda okuhlangene kwalokho okuhlanganisa inhlabathi ezincwadini zesayensi kuholela ekungavumelani ngokubaluleka kwayo. Nakuba incazelo ye-pragmatic yenhlabathi njengokuthi "ephakathi kokukhula kwezitshalo" yamukelwa kabanzi emphakathini wesayensi yeplanethi, incazelo ebanzi ibonisa inhlabathi ngokuthi "i-geochemical/physically altered (bio) material on the surface of the planetary deposits . Le ncazelo igqamisa iqiniso lokuthi inhlabathi iqukethe ulwazi olubalulekile mayelana nesikhathi esidlule semvelo futhi ingakha ngaphandle kokuba khona kokuphila.

Iphrofayili ye-geochemical

umhlabathi we-mars

Ubuso be-Mars bubonakala ngokunwebeka okubanzi kwesihlabathi nothuli, kuhlanganiswe namadwala. Ngezikhathi ezithile, iziphepho ezinkulu zothuli zihlasela iplanethi, ziqoqe izinhlayiya ezinhle emkhathini futhi zenze isibhakabhaka sibe nokubomvu okubomvu. Lo mbala obomvu ungabangelwa ukufakwa kwe-oxidation yamaminerali ensimbi, okungenzeka ukuthi kwakheka izigidigidi zeminyaka edlule, lapho iMars inesimo sezulu esifudumele nesimanzi. Nokho, ezimweni zanamuhla ezibandayo nezomile, i-oxidation yesimanje ingabangelwa i-superoxide eyenza kumaminerali achayeke emisebeni ye-ultraviolet yokukhanya kwelanga.

Ngenxa yokuminyana okuphansi kakhulu komkhathi we-Martian, isihlabathi kucatshangwa ukuthi sihamba kancane nemimoya. Esikhathini esedlule, amanzi awuketshezi ageleza emihosheni nasezigodini zemifula kungenzeka alolonge i-Martian regolith. Abacwaningi bamanje be-Mars baphenya ukuthi ukukhishwa kwamanzi angaphansi komhlaba kuyaqhubeka yini nokubumba i-regolith kanye ukuthi i-carbon dioxide hydrates ikhona yini emhlabeni futhi idlala indima ezinqubweni zayo zokuma komhlaba.

Amanani abalulekile amanzi kanye ne-carbon dioxide kukholakala ukuthi ahlala eqhwa ngaphakathi kwe-regolith, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni ezisenkabazwe ye-Mars, kanye nangaphezulu ezindaweni eziphakeme. Umtshina we-neutron onamandla amakhulu kwisathelayithi ye-Mars Odyssey wembula ukuthi i-Martian regolith iqukethe amanzi, okwenza kufikela ku-5% wesisindo sayo. Lokhu okutholakele kusikisela ukuthi izinqubo zesimo sezulu esingokomzimba njengamanje zinomthelela omkhulu kukho I-Mars ngenxa yokuba khona kwe-mineral eyisisekelo ekwazi ukumelana nesimo sezulu, i-olivine. Ukuthuthuka okusheshayo kwenhlabathi ku-Mars kukholakala ukuthi kubangelwa ukugcwala okuphezulu kweqhwa emhlabathini.

Okutholakele emhlabathini waseMartian

izitshalo kuma-mars

Ngo-June 2008, i-Phoenix Lander yanikeza idatha ebonisa ukuthi inhlabathi ye-Martian eduze ne-north pole ine-alkaline kancane futhi iqukethe imisoco ebalulekile njenge-magnesium, i-sodium, i-potassium ne-chloride, ebalulekile ekukhuleni kwezinto eziphilayo. Ukuqhathaniswa okwenziwe phakathi kwenhlabathi yeMartian kanye nezingadi zoMhlaba kuphakamise ukuthi ingase ilungele ukukhula kwezitshalo. Nokho, ngo-August 2008, I-Phoenix Lander yenze ucwaningo lwamakhemikhali ehlanganisa amanzi oMhlaba nomhlabathi we-Martian ukuhlola i-pH yawo.

Lezi zivivinyo zaqinisekisa imibono yososayensi abaningi, ukuveza imikhondo ye-sodium perchlorate kanye nesilinganiso se-pH esiyisisekelo esingu-8,3. Ukuba khona kwe-perchlorate, uma kuqinisekiswa, kungenza inhlabathi yaseMartian imangalisa nakakhulu kunalokho okwakucatshangwa ngaphambili. Ukukhipha umthelela ongaba khona womsuka wasemhlabeni, ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe kuyadingeka ukuze kutholwe imbangela yokufundwa kwe-perchlorate, okungenzeka ukuthi idlulile ukusuka kumkhumbi-mkhathi kuya kumasampuli noma amathuluzi. Nakuba ulwazi lwethu ngenhlabathi ye-Martian lulinganiselwe, izici zayo eziningi zisiholela ekubuzeni ukuthi singaziqhathanisa kanjani ngokuphumelelayo nenhlabathi etholakala eMhlabeni.

Njengoba ubona, kuningi okutholwe ngendawo ye-Martian futhi isithakazelo sayo asiyeki ukukhula. Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nenhlabathi ye-Martian, izici zayo kanye nokutholakele kwakamuva.


Shiya umbono wakho

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.