I-Quasar: izici nezakhiwo

i-quasar nokubaluleka

Siyazi ukuthi indawo yonke inkulu futhi kungahle kube nezinto eziningi ezingaziwa njengezinkanyezi ezibhekisa kumzimba wasezulwini. Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinto zezinkanyezi ezingatholwa esibhakabhakeni. Phakathi kwazo zonke lezi zinto zezinkanyezi thola amafayela we- i-quasar. Yinto yezinkanyezi ethathwa ososayensi abangongoti njengenye yezinkanyezi ezikhanya kakhulu ezikhona endaweni yonke. Imayelana neRoger Birds ithola isikhala kude futhi ikwazi ukukhipha amandla amakhulu ngemisebe efanayo yokukhiqiza izinkanyezi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana ne-quasar, izici zayo nokubaluleka kwayo.

Izici eziyinhloko

i-quasar endaweni yonke

Ama-Quasar yimizimba yasezulwini enikwe amandla yimigodi emnyama emikhulu (izigidigidi zezikhathi eziphakeme kunelanga lethu). Zicwebezela kakhulu kangangokuthi zakhazimulisa imithala yasendulo eyayinayo, futhi okumangazayo ukuthi saqala ukuyiqonda engxenyeni yekhulu edlule.

Ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi lezi zimpawu eziqinile zivela kuyi-galactic nucleus, enengaphezulu kunomthala wayo. Eqinisweni, sithola ama-quasar kuphela emithala enezimbobo ezimnyama ezinkulu (hhayi nakuyo yonke imithala yemigodi emnyama). Lapho izinto zasezulwini zisondele kakhulu, zakha i-accretion disk eshisa ize ifike ezigidini zama-degree futhi ikhiphe imisebe eminingi.

Imvelo kazibuthe ezungeze imbobo emnyama ibangela ama-jets wamandla akhiwa ngezindlela ezihlukile (kufana nalokho okwenzekayo ngamandla e-pulsar, nawo aphuma ngezindlela ezimbili eziphikisanayo), ahamba emkhathini izigidi zeminyaka. Yize ukukhanya kungaphunyuki emgodini omnyama futhi uthuli negesi kuwela kuwo, ezinye izinhlayiya ziyasheshiswa cishe ziye ngejubane lokukhanya ngenxa yalokhu kukazibuthe.

Manje sizogxila kuzici ze-quasar:

  • Iphakela amandla akhiqizwa ukuhlangana okunodlame phakathi kwento ye-galactic
  • Ikhula maphakathi nomthala omusha bese iba umzimba okhazimula kakhulu wasezulwini. Ingathola ngisho nezigidigidi zeminyaka yokukhanya.
  • Ukukhanya kwayo kubangelwa umgodi omkhulu omnyama osenkabeni yeMilky Way.
  • Udaba lwegesi olwaluzungezile lwakwazi ukufinyelela emazingeni okushisa aphezulu kakhulu. Kwakunokungqubuzana okuningi nesiyaluyalu kuwo.
  • Banamazinga aphezulu emisebe.
  • Bacwebe izikhathi eziyizigidi kunezinkanyezi.

Umlando we-quasar

i-quasar

Kumele sibuyele emuva ngawo-1930, lapho uKarl Jansky (omunye wamaphayona wesayensi yanamuhla yezinkanyezi) ethola ukuthi ukuphazamiseka okungaguquguquki ezintanjeni zocingo e-Atlantic kwaqhamuka, noma kancane, eMilky Way. Ngawo-1950, izazi zezinkanyezi zazivele zisebenzisa izibonakude zomsakazo ukuskena isibhakabhaka futhi zisebenzise abakutholile ukuziqhathanisa nezithombe zesibhakabhaka.

Ngakho-ke, bathole ukuthi eminye imithombo emincane yokukhishwa ayinayo imithombo yokulinganisa elinganayo ebangeni lokukhanya elibonakalayo. Ngamanye amagama, bathole umthombo wokukhishwa komsakazo kusiginali yomsakazo, kepha abatholanga inkanyezi noma yini ebonakala ikhipha la mandla ngomfanekiso wesibhakabhaka. Izazi zezinkanyezi zibiza lezi zinto ngokuthi "imithombo yamandla engenantambo yokubuka" noma "ama-quasars." Ngemuva kweminyaka yocwaningo (futhi kungahle kwenzeke ukucacisa ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi ziluhlobo oluthile lokukhishwa empucukweni yomfokazi), abantu bathole ukuthi empeleni yizinhlayiya ezisheshiswa eduze kwejubane lokukhanya.

Kungumthombo wamandla obhekene nokukhanyisa inani elikhulu lokukhanya, kuyimbobo emnyama enkulu ngokweqile nesithando somlilo esivuthayo.

Izakhiwo ze-Quasar

yini ama-quasar

I-quasar ine-redshift enkulu futhi bakude nomhlabathi. Yize zibonakala zidangele lapho zibukwa ngesibonakude, ziqhelelene kakhulu, okubenza babe yizinto ezikhanya kakhulu endaweni yonke. Bangashintsha ukukhanya kwabo ngezikhathi ezahlukahlukene. Ezinye zazo zingashintsha nokukhanya ngezinyanga, amasonto, izinsuku noma amahora. Ububanzi be-quasar obushintsha kusilinganiso sesikhathi samasonto ambalwa abungeqi emavikini ambalwa wokukhanya.

I-quasar nayo inezici eziningi ezifanayo njengemithala esebenzayo. Imisebe ayiyona imisebe eshisayo futhi iye yabonwa ngama-jets nama-lobes (njengemithala yomsakazo). Ama-Quasars angabonwa ezifundeni eziningi ze-electromagnetic spectrum, njenge imvamisa yomsakazo, i-infrared, ukukhanya okubonakalayo, i-ultraviolet, i-X-ray ngisho nemisebe ye-gamma. Iningi lazo likhanya kakhulu kuhlaka lwereferensi yombala we-ultraviolet eduze kolayini we-1216Å weLyman-alpha hydrogen emission, kepha ngenxa yokushintsha kwawo okubomvu, indawo ekhanyayo ebonwe ku-infrared eseduze ifinyelela ku-9000Å.

Ukubaluleka kokuthola nokutadisha i-quasar ukuthi ososayensi bangayisebenzisa ukuthola imininingwane ebalulekile yokuthi bangayakha kanjani imbobo yokuqala emnyama enkulu nomthala wayo.

Zitholakala kuphi?

Ama-quasar amaningi esiwatholayo ayizigidigidi zeminyaka yokukhanya kusuka kithi. Njengoba noma ngabe ihamba ngejubane lokukhanya, le misebe ithatha isikhathi eside ukusabalala. Ukufunda lezi zinto empeleni kufana nokusebenzisa umshini wesikhathi, ngakho-ke siyakwazi ukubona izidalwa zasezulwini eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane eyedlule, njengalapho ukukhanya kuphunyuka lapho. Izigidi zeminyaka. Kuma-quasars angaphezu kwezi-2.000 XNUMX aziwayo, iningi lalikhona ezigabeni zokuqala zemithala yabo. Kungenzeka ukuthi iMilky Way ibigujwa ezinsukwini zokuqala futhi ithule kusukela lapho.

Ama-Quasar akhipha amandla afinyelela ezigidigidini zamandla, okudlula konke ukukhanya okuqoqwe yizo zonke izinkanyezi eMilky Way. Yizinto ezikhanya kakhulu endaweni yonke futhi amandla alo akhanyayo ayizikhathi eziyishumi kuya kweziyi-10 100.000 zeMilky Way. Akuzona zodwa izinto ezinalezi zici, empeleni ziyingxenye yeqembu lezindikimba zasezulwini ezibizwa ngokuthi yi-galactic nuclei esebenzayo, ehlanganisa nemithala kaSeifert nemizimba yasezulwini.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-quasar nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.