ISiphepho uKatrina, esinye sezilimaza kakhulu emlandweni wethu wakamuva

Isiphepho uKatrina, njengoba kubonwa yisiphuphutheki se-NOAA seGoES-12

Isiphepho uKatrina, njengoba kubonwa yisiphuphutheki se-NOAA seGoES-12.

Izimo zesimo sezulu yizinto ezivame ukudala umonakalo, kepha hhayi kakhulu njengalezo ezidalwe yi Isiphepho uKatrina. Okungenani abantu abayi-1833 babulawa yisiphepho uqobo noma izikhukhula ezazihambisana naso, okwenza kwaba yisona sikhathi esabulala kunazo zonke izinkathi zeziphepho zase-Atlantic ngo-2005 kanti okwesibili emlandweni wase-U.S., Ngemuva kweSan kuphela UFelipe II, ngo-1928.

Kodwa, Uyini umsuka kanye nomkhondo walesi siphepho esinamandla okuthi, ngokubiza igama laso nje, imifanekiso yokubhujiswa esishiye e-United States ifike ngokushesha engqondweni?

Umlando weSiphepho uKatrina

Ithrekhi yeSiphepho uKatrina

Umkhondo kaKatrina.

Ukukhuluma ngoKatrina ukukhuluma ngeNew Orleans, Mississipi, nakwamanye amazwe ahlupheka ngokudlula kwalesi siphepho esishisayo. Yisiphepho seshumi nambili esakhiwa ngenkathi yeziphepho yango-2005, ikakhulukazi ngo-Agasti 23, eningizimu-mpumalanga yeBahamas. Kwaba ngumphumela wokuhlangana kwegagasi elishisayo neTropical Depression Diez, eyakhiwa ngo-Agasti 13.

Isistimu yafika esimweni sesiphepho esishisayo ngemuva kosuku olulodwa nje, ngo-Agasti 24, usuku okwakuzoqanjwa igama kabusha ngokuthi uKatrina. I-trajectory eyalandela yile elandelayo:

  • Agasti 23: ibheke ngaseHallandale Beach nase-Aventura. Lapho ifika phansi, yathamba, kodwa ngemuva kwehora, lapho ingena eGulf of Mexico, yaphinde yaqina futhi yabuyela esimweni sayo sesiphepho.
  • Agasti 27: Ifinyelele esigabeni 3 esikalini sikaSaffir-Simpson, kepha umjikelezo wokushintshwa kodonga lweso kubangele ukuthi luphindeke kabili ngosayizi. Lokhu kuqina okusheshayo kwakudalwa ngamanzi afudumele ngokungajwayelekile, okwenza umoya uphephethe ngokushesha. Ngakho-ke, ngosuku olulandelayo lwafinyelela esigabeni 5.
  • Agasti 29: Yenziwe ukuwela okwesibili njengesiphepho esigabeni 3 ngaseBuras (Louisiana), eBreton, eLouisiana naseMississipi ngemimoya ka-195km / h.
  • Agasti 31: yehliselwa ekucindezelekeni kwezindawo ezishisayo eduze kwaseClarksville (Tennessee), yaqhubeka nendlela yayo eya eGreat Lakes.

Ekugcineni, kwaba yisiphepho esingenakulinganiswa esathuthela enyakatho-mpumalanga futhi sathinta empumalanga yeCanada.

Yiziphi izinyathelo ezathathwa ukugwema umonakalo?

Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Sesiphepho (CNH) ukhiphe iwashi lesiphepho eningizimu-mpumalanga yeLouisiana, Mississipi nase-Alabama ngo-Agasti 27 ngemuva kokubukeza indlela okungenzeka ukuthi isiphepho siyilandele. Ngalo lolo suku, i-United States Coast Guard yenza uchungechunge lwemisebenzi yokutakula isuka eTexas iye eFlorida.

Lowo owayengumongameli wase-United States ngaleso sikhathi, UGeorge W. Bush umemezele isimo esibucayi eLouisiana, Alabama naseMississippi ngo-Agasti 27. Emini, i-CNH ikhiphe isexwayiso sesiphepho ngokunweba okungasogwini phakathi kweMorgan City (Louisiana) nomngcele ophakathi kwe-Alabama neFloridaamahora ayishumi nambili ngemuva kwesixwayiso sokuqala.

Kuze kube yileso sikhathi, akekho owayengaba nomqondo wokuthi uKatrina wayezogcina ebhujiswe kanjani. Umbiko ukhishwe ehhovisi laseNew Orleans / Baton Rouge leNational Weather Service exwayisa ngokuthi le ndawo ingahlala abantu amasonto amaningi.. Ngo-Agasti 28, uBush wakhuluma noMbusi uBlanco ukuba bancome ukuthi kususwe abantu ngenkani eNew Orleans.

Sekukonke, abantu ababalelwa ezigidini eziyi-1,2 abavela eGulf Coast kanye nabaningi baseNew Orleans kwadingeka basuswe.

Kwenze muphi umonakalo?

Isiphepho uKatrina, umonakalo eMississipi

Wasala kanjalo uMississipi ngemuva kwesiphepho.

Kushonile

Isiphepho uKatrina kubangele ukufa kwabantu abayi-1833: 2 e-Alabama, 2 eGeorgia, 14 eFlorida, 238 eMississipi nabangu-1577 135 eLouisiana. Ngaphezu kwalokho, bekunyamalale i-XNUMX.

Ukulimala kwempahla

  • Ku eningizimu yeFlorida naseCuba umonakalo walinganiselwa kwisigidi esisodwa kuya kweziyizigidi ezimbili zamaRandi, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yezifo ezikhukhulayo nezigawuliwe. Kwakunemvula enkulu eFlorida, ne-250mm, naseCuba, ne-200mm. Idolobha laseCuba iBatabanó lalinezikhukhula ezingama-90%.
  • En Louisiana Imvula nayo ibishubile, kusuka ku-200 kuye ku-250mm, okwenze ukuthi izinga leLake Pontchartrain likhuphuke, nokuthe lapho kwagcwala amadolobha aphakathi kweSlidell neMandeville. I-10 Twin Span Bridge, exhumanise uSlidell neNew Orleans, yacekelwa phansi.
  • En New Orleans izimvula bezinamandla kangangokuba lonke idolobha ligcwele izikhukhula. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uKatrina wabangela ukwephulwa okungu-53 ohlelweni lwama-levee olwaluvikela. Imigwaqo ibingenakufinyeleleka, ngaphandle kweCrescent City Connection, ngakho-ke bebengashiya idolobha kuphela ngayo.
  • En Mississippi, kudale umonakalo olinganiselwa ezigidini zamaRandi emabhulohweni, ezikebheni, ezimotweni, ezindlini nasemapayipi. Isiphepho sadabula phakathi kwaso, okwaholela ekutheni izifunda ezingama-82 zamemezele izindawo eziyinhlekelele zosizo lukahulumeni.
  • Ku ENingizimu-mpumalanga ye-US Imimoya ka-107km / h yaqoshwa e-Alabama, lapho kwavela khona neziphepho ezine. IDauphin Island yalimala kabi. Ngenxa yesiphepho, amabhishi aguguleka.

Njengoba ibheke enyakatho futhi ibuthaka, uKatrina wayesenamandla anele okubangela izikhukhula eKentucky, West Virginia nase-Ohio.

Ngokuphelele, Ukulimala kwempahla kulinganiselwa ku- $ 108 million.

Umthelela wezemvelo

Uma sikhuluma ngeziphepho sivame ukucabanga ngomonakalo eziwenzayo emadolobheni amakhulu nasemadolobheni, okuyinto enengqondo impela ngoba senza izimpilo zethu kulezo zindawo. Kodwa-ke, kwesinye isikhathi kuyenzeka ukuthi enye yalezi zimo idale umonakalo omkhulu emvelweni. NoKatrina wayengomunye wabo.

Konakaliswe umhlaba ongaba ngu-560km2 eLouisiana, ngokusho I-United States Geological Survey, izindawo lapho kwakukhona ama-pelican ase-brown, ama-turtles, izinhlanzi nezilwane eziningi zasolwandle. Futhi hhayi lokho kuphela, kepha kwadingeka ukuthi kuvalwe izindawo zokuvikela izilwane zasendle eziyishumi nesithupha.

ELouisiana, kube nokuchitheka kukawoyela ezikhungweni ezingama-44 eningizimu-mpumalanga, elihunyushelwe kumalitha ayizigidi ezingama-26. Iningi lalilawulwa, kepha abanye bafinyelela imvelo kanye nedolobha laseMeraux.

Imiphumela kubantu besizwe

Uma untula ukudla namanzi, wenza noma yini edingekayo ukuze ukuthole. Kepha ngeke kube nguwe wedwa ophanga nokweba - kanjalo nabantu abanodlame. Yilokho kanye okwenzeka e-United States. Unogada Kazwelonke wase-United States kufakwe amasosha angama-58.000 ukuzama ukulawula amadolobha, yize bebengakutholi kulula: izinga lokubulawa kwabantu kusukela ngoSepthemba 2005 kuya kuNhlolanja 2006 likhule ngama-28% kufinyelela ekubulaweni kwabantu abayi-170.

Ngabe kwathathwa izinyathelo ezifanele?

Indlu eyonakele eFlorida ngemuva kweSiphepho uKatrina

Indlu eyonakele eFlorida ngemuva kweSiphepho uKatrina.

Kukhona labo abacabanga lokho uHulumeni wase-United States akazange enze konke okusemandleni ukugwema ukulahleka kwabantu. Umrepha Kanye West ekhonsathini yenzuzo esakazwa yi-NBC uthe "uGeorge Bush akabakhathaleli abantu abamnyama." Lowo owayengumongameli waphendula kulokhu kumangalelwa ngokuthi lesi kwakuyisikhathi esibi kunazo zonke sokuba ngumongameli wakhe, esolwa ngokungafanele ngokubandlulula.

UJohn prescott, owayeyiPhini likaNdunankulu wase-United Kingdom, wathi “isikhukhula esibi eNew Orleans sisisondeza ekukhathazekeni kwabaholi bamazwe afana neMaldives, izizwe zawo ezisengozini yokunyamalala ngokuphelele. Izwe laseMelika belinqikaza inqubo ye-Kyoto, engikubheka njengephutha.

Ngaphandle kwalokhu okwenzekile, amazwe amaningi ayefuna ukusiza abasindile bakaKatrina, ngokuthumela imali, ukudla, imithi noma yini ababengayenza. Usizo lwamazwe omhlaba belulukhulu kangangokuba kuma-dollar ayizigidi ezingama-854 abawatholile, badinga ama-40 kuphela (ngaphansi kuka-5%).

ISiphepho uKatrina sashiya umthelela waso e-United States, kodwa ngicabanga okuncane ngathi sonke. Kwakungenye yezethulo ezibaluleke kakhulu zamandla emvelo. Imvelo ekhona, isisinakekela isikhathi esiningi, futhi kwesinye isikhathi isifaka esivivinyweni.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.