Ikhalenda leZaragoza

Ikhalenda leZaragoza

Namuhla sizokwazi ikhalenda ethize ekhethekile egcina ubuhle nentelezi ngoba ayigxili kwisayensi kepha inezibikezelo unyaka wonke ngaphandle kobunzima besayensi. Imayelana ne- Ikhalenda leZaragozano. Kuyincwadi yonyaka yaseSpain efaka phakathi isibikezelo sesimo sezulu kanye nesayensi yezinkanyezi unyaka wonke wekhalenda futhi ngaphandle kohlobo oluthile lokuqina kwesayensi.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela wonke umlando nezici zekhalenda leZaragozano.

Umsuka wekhalenda leZaragozano

Ikhalenda leZaragoza 2018

Uhlelo lokuqala lwekhalenda leZaragoza lwenziwa okokuqala ngo-1840. Yayilungiselelwe isazi sezinkanyezi saseSpain uMariano Castillo y Ocsiero. Ngaphandle kokuphazanyiswa, ngaphandle kweminyaka embalwa lapho kwenzeka iMpi Yombango yaseSpain, ichaziwe yahlelwa. Cishe kuwo wonke ama-edishini isithombe esifanayo senkanyezi sibonakala sibhekise kumdali waso. Isazi sezinkanyezi siyindoda enokubukeka okuhle kakhulu. Izinwele zakhe zisonteke ngokuphelele futhi unenkulumo enhle.

Njengamanje, azisaphrintiwe ngokomzimba, kepha zingathengwa ku-inthanethi. Noma kunjalo, isagcina ukwakheka okufanayo kokubili ikhava nokuqukethwe. Igama lekhalenda uZaragozan noma ngabe umbhali walo uvelaphi eZaragoza. Yenzelwe ukuhlonipha isazi sezinkanyezi saseSpain uVictororiano Zaragozano noGracia Zapater. Lesi sazi sezinkanyezi sazalelwa ePuebla de Albortón ngekhulu le-XNUMX futhi sasithandwa kakhulu ngesikhathi sakhe. Futhi wayazi okuningi ngesayensi yezinkanyezi futhi waqambela ama-almanac ancintisanayo komunye usosayensi waseSpain owayegqamile ezifundweni zakhe zokufundwa kwezinkanyezi, izibalo kanye nomlando wemvelo. Umncintiswano kwakunguJerónimo Cortés.

Umlando wekhalenda leZaragozano

Ama-almanacs

Umlando wekhalenda leZaragozano uqala ngemuva kohlelo lwayo lokuqala. Ukusabalalisa kwayo kwafinyelela kuwo wonke amakhona aseSpain ngezinhlobo ezimbili ezazinikezelwe ngaleso sikhathi. Leli khalenda beliqukethe i- ishidi eligoqwe phakathi ebelingenye yezona ezithengisa kakhulu enye imodeli kwakuyincwadi ephaketheni elingana nepheshana eligoqiwe.

Namuhla sijwayele ukuba nolwazi oluningi ngesimo sezulu hhayi ezweni lethu kuphela, kodwa nasemhlabeni wonke. Ungasazi isibikezelo sezulu ngenxa yamamodeli ahlukahlukene ayinkimbinkimbi asifundayo asekelwa ngamagrafu, izithombe zesathelayithi, amafomula ezibalo nolwazi oluningi. Ngenxa yalobu buchwepheshe, isimo sezulu sezinsuku ezimbalwa singabikezelwa ngokunembile. Noma kunjalo, isidingo sokwazi isimo sezulu akuyona into entsha. Lesi sidingo besilokhu sikhona kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu esenza ukuthi abantu bahlale bezama ukwazi ukuthi yini ezokwenzeka ngaphambi kwesikhathi.

Ngaphambilini, isimo sezulu sasaziwa ngokubheka ngqo izimpawu ezazingabonakala endaweni uqobo kanye nokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu njengamafu, umoya nokushisa okwakukhona ngaleso sikhathi kwakucwaningwa. Bekufanele futhi uthembele kokuhlangenwe nakho kwabantu asebekhulile abathile noma izibikezelo ezibenze baba nemfudumalo futhi ezimbili njengekhalenda leZaragozano. Njengoba kunjalo nanamuhla, yilabo ababezinikele kwezolimo abenza umzamo okhethekile wokubhala phansi bazi ukuthi unyaka olandelayo uzoba njani ukukwazi ukukhetha izikhathi zokuhlwanyela nokuvuna ukwenza ngcono isivuno. Namuhla abantu abaningi bathatha lokhu okubonwayo yize bekwenza ngendlela enelukuluku ukwedlula ngenhloso yesayensi.

Leli khalenda selikhona futhi lisetshenziswa selokhu lasungulwa njengencwadi eseceleni kombhede kubalimi ngoba izitshalo zingaba ngaphansi kwezimo zezulu eziningi ezingezinhle. Isomiso, iziphepho kanye nezigaba zenyanga kuthinta izitshalo futhi ngenxa yekhalenda leZaragozano kube nokwenzeka ukuthi ube nolwazi olungcono ngalo.

Izici eziyinhloko

ukubikezela

Intengo yokuqala leli khalenda elalinayo ngo-1840 kumele ukuthi yayise-reais ngoba kwakuyimali eyayitholakala ngaleso sikhathi. Kwaze kwaphela iminyaka engama-28 lapho i-peseta yethulwa khona eSpain njengethenda elisemthethweni. Intengo ekuqaleni yayingamasenti ayi-15 kuphela ngo-1920 (okungalingana nama-euro namuhla). Njengoba iminyaka ihamba, intengo yayo inyukele cishe kuma-duros angama-20 noma ama-peset ayi-100 noma amasenti angu-0,60. Njengamanje intengo ingama-1.8 euros. Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, ukuthambekela kwamanani anyukayo omkhiqizo ofanayo bekuqhubeka iminyaka neminyaka.

Ngo-1900, ikhalenda leZaragozano lathengiswa ngokuzwakalayo ezigcawini ezinkulu zamadolobha namadolobhana. Iningi lamakhasimende laliphansi futhi cishe kwathengiswa amakhophi ayi-1.270.000. Namuhla kudayiswa amakhophi angama-300.000 kuphela. Njengoba kungalindelwa, ngokuthuthuka kwesayensi, lolu hlobo lwekhalenda lunomphumela ongemuhle futhi olondolozayo njengokuthambekela kokufuna ukwazi kunokuqina kwesayensi.

Uma sihlaziya ngokucophelela amanye amakhasi kuwo wonke umlando, leli khalenda lingasikhombisa izinto eziningi zenkathi ngayinye. Isibonelo, esembozweni sonyaka we-1883 kungalinganiswa isexwayiso ukuze singakhohliswa ngamanye amakhalenda ayelingisa. Esinye isibonelo ikhava nengaphakathi lekhalenda leZaragozano kusukela ngonyaka we-1936. Kulolu shicilelo kwakukhona amagugu okukhangisa afihliwe akhomba futhi aveza izinkinga ezahlukahlukene umphakathi owawunazo ngaleso sikhathi. Masingakhohlwa ukuthi ngaleso sikhathi kusondele iMpi Yombango yaseSpain imishwana efana neViva Franco! futhi ¡Arriba Spain!

Maphakathi nempi, kwakungelulekanga nakancane ukuthi uziqhelelanise nombuso onqobayo futhi zazibhalwe ezembozweni zalezi zimemezelo, ngaleso sikhathi zazilungile ngokwezepolitiki futhi ukwanda kokuthengiswa kwakuthandwa ngamabomu. Eminyakeni edlule, izikhangiso ezikwikhalenda leZaragoza zincishiswa kancane kancane zize zingabe zisaba khona. Kade kwafuneka ukuthi inikeze ukubaluleka okwengeziwe nokusakazwa kwaleli khalenda kufaka phakathi intengo yalo yokuthengisa emphakathini. Ikhava yamanje ingabonakala ifana neminyaka edlule futhi izoqhubeka nokuba wuphawu lwentelezi yayo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngekhalenda leZaragozano nezici zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.