Ihlathi eliphansi

izitshalo phansi

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zemvelo ngokuya ngezimo zemvelo ezikhona. Namuhla sizokhuluma nge Ihlathi eliphansi. Ihambisana nendawo yehlathi lase-Amazon lase-Peru elisuka empumalanga yezintaba zase-Andes. Luhlobo lwamahlathi emvula asezingeni eliphakeme anezindawo eziphakeme ezisuka kumamitha angama-80 kuye kwangama-400 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle. Umcengezi ofanayo womfula i-Amazon uyatholakala.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, indawo yokuhlala, izitshalo nezilwane zehlathi eliphansi.

Izici eziyinhloko

esifundeni se-omagua

Luhlobo lwehlathi olwaziwa nangokuthi isifunda sase-Omagua. Yakhiwa ukwakheka kwezitshalo ezinesakhiwo esiyinkimbinkimbi esiphakathi kwezendlalelo ezi-3 kuye kwezingu-4 noma amazinga ohlaza afakwe entweni engaphansi. Lezi zitshalo zaphansi kungenxa yezinhlobo ezahlukene nokuphakama okwakhiwa ngokusho kokukhula nokukhula kwazo. I-understory yingxenye ephansi engaphansi kwemithi. Ukuba yindawo nge izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo zinele izitshalo ze-epiphytic nezikhuphukayo. Zonke lezi zici ziyingxenye ye-biome yehlathi lemvula.

Isifunda sehlathi eliphansi siveza umhlaba owomile, yize kubuye kube namahlathi agcwele amanzi, amaxhaphozi kanye nezindawo ezigcwele izihlahla zesundu. Isici esiyinhloko sehlathi eliphansi sivelele ngokuba nesimo sezulu esifudumele esinamazinga okushisa acishe abe ngama-degree angama-26 ngokwesilinganiso futhi ngemvula eningi edlula i-3.000 mm.

Leli hlathi lisethafeni elingenamanzi lapho inhlabathi evelele inesihlabathi futhi inenqwaba yemifula nemifudlana. Izilwane ziminyene futhi izinambuzane nama-arachnids kugqamile. Lokhu kugqama kungenxa yokwehlukahlukana kwezinhlobo kanye nenani labantu. Okunye okuphawulekile ukuba khona kwezinhlanzi zamanzi amaningi angenasawoti, izinyoni, izilwane ezihuquzelayo nezilwane ezincelisayo phakathi lezo sithola i-peccary, izinhlobo eziningi zezinkawu ne-jaguar.

Ngokuya ngezimbali, kunokuhlukahluka okukhulu kwezitshalo zemithambo. Sibona nezinhlobo eziningi zamafern, ubulembu nobulembu. Kungashiwo ukuthi ehektheleni elilodwa kuphela lehlathi elisentabeni kunezinhlobo zezihlahla ezingaphezu kuka-300 ezinenqwaba yama-orchid nama-bromeliads.

Indawo yokuhlala nendawo yehlathi eliphansi

ihlathi eliphansi eMelika

Lesi sifunda sonke sisho indawo yemvelo yasePeru futhi sikhula ethafeni eliya engxenyeni esempumalanga yezwe. Le ndawo inkulu kakhulu njengoba ithatha indawo engaba amahektha ayizigidi ezingama-65. Imikhawulo yehlathi eliphansi ihlangabezana nehlathi eliphakeme emagqumeni ase-Andes. Ingatholakala futhi empumalanga uma siqhubeka sinqamula ehlathini lemvula lase-Amazon laseBrazil, ngaseningizimu-mpumalanga inqamula iBolivia futhi engxenyeni esenyakatho inqamula iColombia ne-Ecuador.

Lesi sihlahla semvula sasemathafeni sithathwa njenge-biome. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi akuyona i-ecosystem elula, kepha kunalokho i-biome efaka i-mosaic ye-ecosystems ngaphakathi. Ngamanye amagama, iqoqo lezinto eziphilayo endaweni eyodwa. Siyathola ihlathi elingakhukhuleki, ihlathi eligcwele izikhukhula, amaxhaphozi, amaxhaphozi, amahlathi esihlabathi esimhlophe, njll. Ngayinye yalezi zinhlelo zemvelo inezici ezihlukile kanye nokuhlukahluka kwezinto eziphilayo okuthuthuka ngokuya ngalezi zici zemvelo.

Isakhiwo semifino sehlathi eliphansi asihambisani. Ngenxa yokwehlukahlukana okukhulu kwezinhlobo nokubekwa kanye nezidingo zohlobo ngalunye lwazo, kunokuhlukahluka okukhulu esakhiweni. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, endaweni engenazikhukhula sithola inhlabathi enesakhiwo esingcono nokuzala okukhulu. Lezi zindawo zinezitezi ezi-3 noma ezi-4 zezimila zase-arboreal kanye ne-understory eyakhiwe izihlahla nezitshalo ezinobuthi. Ngenxa yokuzala kwenhlabathi kanye nobuningi bezihlahla, izinga lomswakama eliphezulu ligcinwa unyaka wonke.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinesitezi esiphezulu sehlathi elifinyelela kumamitha angama-40 ukuphakama futhi linezihlahla ezivelayo eziphakeme ngamamitha angama-60. Ukuzungeza iziqu zezihlahla nasengxenyeni engezansi sithola ukwehluka okukhulu kwezitshalo ezikhuphukayo zemvelo ehlukahlukene kanye nezitshalo ze-epiphytic.

Inhlabathi nesimo sezulu sehlathi eliphansi

Ihlathi eliphansi

Into ejwayelekile kunazo zonke ukuthi inhlabathi evelele ehlathini eliphansi inokwakheka kwesihlabathi, yize kuguquka kakhulu. Sibona nenhlabathi ene-sandy loam evamise ukuba yinhlabathi ebumbayo ezindaweni ezinomswakama ophakeme. Ngokuvamile ziyinhlabathi engenamsoco futhi itholakala ijikeleza ngobukhulu bezimila. Kukhona inani eliphelele lesikhunta namahlelo abamba iqhaza ekusetshenzisweni kabusha nasekusebenziseni izakhamzimba ezivela ezintweni eziphilayo ezifile. Njengoba sazi, kunokuxhumana okuhlukile phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo ezibizwa ngokuthi uchungechunge lokudla. Isixhumanisi sokugcina kuleli chungechunge singababoli. Umsebenzi wawo omkhulu ukukhipha izinto eziphilayo ezintweni ezifile. Ngenxa yalokhu, kungenzeka ukuthi ubuyele esimweni sokuqala futhi uthole wonke amandla wenethiwekhi.

Ngokuqondene nesimo sezulu, ehlathini eliphansi isimo sezulu esishisayo esinemvula esifudumele. Izinga lokushisa liphezulu impela kepha izimo zemvelo zenza imvula ibe ningi kakhulu. Umswakama wayo ophakeme uqhamuka emafwini ahudulwa emthambekeni we-Atlantic ohlangothini olusuka empumalanga luye entshonalanga. Onke amafu ajwayele ukukhuphuka ubuso basempumalanga ye-Andes futhi lapho ephola ayahlangana ukuze adedele iziphepho ezinamandla nemvula eningi.

Amazinga okushisa aphezulu atholakala ehlathini elingezansi cishe angama-37 degrees ngenyanga ka-Okthoba. Ubuncane bunikezwa ngenyanga kaJulayi futhi buzungeze ama-degree ayi-17. Ngakho-ke, kusho ngokuvamile kuvame ama-degrees angu-26. Ngokuba nemvula eningi, ngamanani afinyelela kumamilimitha ayi-3.000, futhi yeqe ezinye izindawo ezinama-5.000 mm yenza izinga lomswakama ohlobene kakhulu liphakame kakhulu. Sithola izindawo ezinomswakama ohlobene no-88%.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngehlathi eliphansi nezici zalo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.