I-Panama Canal

ukubaluleka komsele we-panama

El IPanama Canal Kungumgwaqo wamanzi ophakathi nolwandle onqamula lonke izwekazi laseMelika ekuphakameni kwePanama. Ngenxa yalesi siteshi, uLwandle lweCaribbean nolwandle i-Atlantic Ocean lingaxhunyaniswa noLwandlekazi iPacific. Kuyindlela ebaluleke kakhulu kwezomnotho kubantu.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici, ukubaluleka komnotho kanye nomlando wePanama Canal.

Izici eziyinhloko

IPanama Canal

Kungumzila onqamula isiqephu sePanama engxenyeni yawo encane. Ngokusebenzisa uhlelo lokukhiya ekugcineni ngakunye baphakamisa izikebhe kuze kufike kumamitha angama-26 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle bese bebaholela eGatun Lake. Lezi ziphetho zigcwalisa amanzi bese zakha ichibi lokuzakhela elehlela ngakolunye uhlangothi ukunciphisa kakhulu izikhathi zokuzulazula nezokuxhumana kwezasolwandle.

Ngaphambi kokuvulwa kwalezi ziteshi, imikhumbi kwakufanele yehlele eStrait of Magellan naseCape Horn. Lezi zindawo ezimbili ziyingxenye eseningizimu yezwekazi laseNingizimu Melika ukuthi zikwazi ukuwela zisuka kolunye ulwandle ziye kolunye. Ukwakhiwa kwePanama Canal kungenye yemisebenzi emikhulu yobunjiniyela bomhlaba bekhulu lonke lama-XNUMX.

Umlando wePanama Canal

ukusebenza komsele we-panama

Ake sifingqe kafushane umlando walesi siteshi. Isiqephu sePanama sasivele sisetshenziswa ngabomdabu base-pre-Columbian ukuze bakwazi ukuhamba phakathi kolwandle nolunye. Lonke lolu lwazi lwadluliselwa kwabaseSpain ngesikhathi sokunqoba. Kangangokuthi INkosi uCharles I ngonyaka we-1524 uphakamise ukwenziwa kwesiteshi esizohlinzeka ngezikhathi zokuhamba phakathi kwePeru neSpain. Kepha isimo sezobuchwepheshe nezemali sase-Europe asizange sisivumele leso sikhathi.

Phakathi nekhulu le-XNUMX leminyaka, kwavela umqondo wokwakha umsele olwandle olwandle eNicaragua, kodwa yonke le nqubo yokwakha kwadingeka ime ngenxa yezombangazwe. Namuhla, lo mbono uvuselelwe. Kwakuyisazi semvelo esidumile saseJalimane ngaphesheya kwesiqinti sePanamani esabeka izisekelo zethiyori zokumbiwa komsele futhi iphrojekthi kabani yethulwa nguFerdinand de Lesseps eminyakeni eyishumi kamuva. Le ndoda yayingusomabhizinisi nonjiniyela waseFrance.

Ubukhulu balesi siteshi obuxhuma amachweba aseBalboa naseCristóbal bangamakhilomitha angama-77 ubude. Ingidi ingamamitha angaba ngu-39 ukuphakama namamitha ayi-110 ubude. Babamba cishe amamitha ayi-106 wamanzi. Ukweqa wonke umsele kuvame ukuthatha cishe amahora ayi-8. Lokhu kusinikeza umbono wokuthi yinde kangakanani.

Amaphrojekthi wokwakhiwa kwemisele yasePanama

Kunamaphrojekthi wokwakha amaningana alo mfula kusukela avulwa ngo-1914. Iphrojekthi yadluliselwa enkampanini yaseFrance ngesikhathi sikahulumeni iRiphabhulikhi yaseNew Granada ngaleso sikhathi ngo-1839. Kodwa-ke, bekwaziwa ukuthi ukwakhiwa kwalo msele kube nezinkinga ezinkulu zabasebenzi, uhulumeni, njll. Ngenxa yalokhu, inkampani yaseFrance yalahlekelwa inzalo futhi yasula emvumelwaneni ngemuva nje kwalokho. Ngo-1879 kwakunguFrench Ferdinand de Lesseps owathatha wonke lo msebenzi ngemuva kokuphothula iSuez Canal eGibhithe. Wayesenolwazi oluthe xaxa futhi wayefuna ukukusebenzisa ePanama Canal.

Ngendlela yokuthi imisebenzi yaqala ngo-1881 phakathi kwazo zonke izifo eziwumkhuhlane ophuzi, izinselelo ezibangelwa indawo uqobo lwayo nokutholakala kwenkohlakalo yezinkampani eyaziwa namuhla njengePanama Scandal. Imisebenzi yamiswa ngonyaka olandelayo ngoba ukuzamazama komhlaba okunamandla kwazamazamisa sonke isizungu. Ukuxhaswa kwephrojekthi kwaphela ngo-1888 futhi kwayekwa ngokuphelele. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho abaseMelika bangenela khona ukuze baqhubeke nomsebenzi wekhulu lama-1914 futhi, ngokusho kukahulumeni wasePanama, wavula iminyango yomsele ngo-XNUMX.

Iphuzu eliphakeme lokusebenza elifinyelelwe ngo-1963. Ngo-2006, kwagcina kumenyezelwe iphrojekthi yokwandisa iPanama Canal. ngokusebenzisa izingidi ezintsha ukuze ube nesikhala esikhudlwana sezimoto zasolwandle. Lesi sinqumo sithunyelwe kunhlolovo ethandwayo futhi savunywa iningi labantu abavotayo. Imisebenzi iqale ngonyaka olandelayo, futhi iphele ngo-2016 ngoJuni ngenxa yochungechunge lokubambezeleka nenkinga yezezimali.

Ukuphathwa, ukuphathwa nokubaluleka kwezomnotho

ubude bomsebenzi

Njengamanje iPanama Canal ingaphansi kokuphathwa kwePanamani. Lokhu kuphathwa kwanikezwa ngokungapheli e-United States lapho nje umsele wakhiwe. Le ngcindezi yayinempikiswano enkulu njengoba ohulumeni abalandelayo babeka icala noma bethola ubukhosi bomsele. Nabo bazamile buyisela isiqeshana samakhilomitha ayi-8 asizungezile naso ebesidlulisiwe.

Njengamanje, ingaphansi kokuphathwa kwePanama futhi ezinye izingxoxo zenziwe maqondana nokudluliswa kokuphathwa komsele kuziphathimandla zendawo. Lesi siteshi besibalulekile ekuzulazuleni kwezohwebo emhlabeni wonke. Futhi amabhange amaningi akhiwe ngegama lePanamax, okusho ukuthi abenobukhulu obukhulu obanele ukuthi bakwazi ukudlulisa ubude nobubanzi bomsele ngaphandle kwenkinga. Zaziyizikebhe njengenhloso yezentengiselwano okwakudingeka zidlule kulesi siteshi futhi zazivumelanise ukwakheka kwazo nobukhulu ukuze zingadali izinkinga.

Mayelana nokubaluleka, kufanele kubhekwe ukuthi kungumthombo omkhulu womsebenzi nemali engenayo ezweni. Ukuvulwa komsele kuvumele ukugeleza okusheshayo nokusabalele kokushintshana kwezentengiselwano zasolwandle. Konke lokhu kube nomthelela omuhle kakhulu emnothweni wezwe ukuvumela ukuhlukaniswa okukhulu phakathi kwamazwe athuthukile nalawo asathuthuka.

Futhi kwakusho umthombo obalulekile womsebenzi ngemali engenayo kazwelonke kanye nokokufaka okuthile esifundeni futhi ikakhulukazi kubantu basePanama.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngePanama Canal, izici zayo nokubaluleka kwayo kwezomnotho.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.