Isikhulu seHiggs

izinhlayiya

Egatsheni le-quantum physics, kwenziwa umzamo wokucwaninga indlela isisindo sendawo yonke esiqala ngayo. Ngenxa yalokhu, kwenzeke ukuthola ifayela le- IBosgs kaHiggs. Kuyinhlayiya eyisisekelo ososayensi abacabanga ukuthi ineqhaza elibalulekile ekwazini ukuthi indawo yonke yaqala kanjani. Ukuqinisekiswa kobukhona bendawo yonke kungenye yezinjongo ze-Large Hadron Collider. I-accelerator enkulu kunazo zonke futhi enamandla kunazo zonke emhlabeni.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela nokuthi siyini isifuba seHiggs, yiziphi izici zayo nokuthi kubaluleke kangakanani.

Ukubaluleka kwesifuba seHiggs

yini ibanda le-higgs

Ukubaluleka kwesifuba seHiggs ukuthi yiyona kuphela inhlayiya engachaza imvelaphi yendawo yonke. Imodeli ejwayelekile ye-particle physics izichaza kahle zonke lezo zinhlayiya eziyisisekelo nokuxhumana abanakho nemvelo ebazungezile. Kodwa-ke, ingxenye ebalulekile isamele iqinisekiswe, nokuyinto engasinika impendulo ngemvelaphi yobuningi. Kumele kubhekwe ukuthi uma ubukhona bendawo yonke benzeka ngokuhlukile kunalokhu esikwaziyo. Uma i-electron yayingenaso isisindo Ama-athomu ngabe awekho futhi udaba belungeke lube khona njengoba sazi. Uma ubukhulu, bekungeke kube khona chemistry, akukho biology, futhi akukho izidalwa eziphilayo ezizoba khona.

Ukuze kuchazwe ukubaluleka kwakho konke lokhu, amaBrithani uPeter Higgs ngeminyaka yama-60 wakhipha umbono wokuthi kunendlela eyaziwa ngokuthi yinsimu yeHiggs. Njengoba i-photon iyinto eyisisekelo lapho sibheka amandla kazibuthe nokukhanya, le nsimu idinga ubukhona bezinhlayiyana ezingayibhala. Nakhu kukhona ukubaluleka kwale nhlayiya ngoba yiyo ephethe ukwenza insimu uqobo isebenze.

Ukusebenza kwemishini

IBosgs kaHiggs

Sizochaza kancane ukuthi inqubo yenkambu yeHiggs isebenza kanjani. Luhlobo lokuqhubeka olwandisela esikhaleni sonke futhi lwenziwa ngamanani angenakubalwa amabhosi amaHiggs. Ubuningi bezinhlayiya obungadalwa ukungqubuzana nale nsimu, ngakho-ke kungaphetha ngokuthi zonke izinhlayiya ezinokungqubuzana okukhulu nale nsimu zinesisindo esikhulu.

Kunabaningi bethu abangazi ngempela ukuthi yini i-boson. Ukuze siqonde kangcono yonke lemiqondo ethande ukuba yinkimbinkimbi, sizohlaziya ukuthi yini i-boson. Izinhlayiya ze-subatomic zihlukaniswe zaba izinhlobo ezimbili: ama-fermions nama-bosons. Laba bokuqala baphethe ukubhala lolu daba. Indaba esiyaziyo namuhla yakhiwe ngama-fermions. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinezinsizwa ezibhekele ukuthwala amandla noma ukuxhumana kwendaba phakathi kwazo. Lokho wukuthi, lapho udaba lungahlangana phakathi kokunye, luba namandla futhi lunqunywa yizinsizwa.

Siyazi ukuthi izingxenye ze-athomu zingama-electron, ama-proton nama-neutron. Lezi zingxenye ze-athomu ziyi-fermions, ngenkathi i-photon, i-gluon, kanye ne-W ne-Z bosons banesibopho samandla kagesi ngokulandelana. Futhi banesibopho samandla enuzi aqinile futhi abuthakathaka.

Ukutholwa kwesibindi se-Higgs

i-quantum physics

Isifuba seHiggs asikwazi ukutholwa ngqo. Isizathu salokhu ukuthi uma ukuhlakazeka kwaso kwenzeka kwenzeka cishe ngaso leso sikhathi. Uma usuhlakazekile, uveza ezinye izinhlayiya eziyisisekelo esizijwayele kakhulu. Ngakho-ke sibona kuphela izinyathelo ze-Higgs boson. Lezo ezinye izinhlayiya ezingatholakala ku-LHC. Ngaphakathi kwamaphrotoni we-particle accelerator ashayisana ngejubane eliseduze kakhulu nelokukhanya. Kuleli jubane siyazi ukuthi kukhona ukushayisana ezindaweni zamasu futhi nemitshina emikhulu ingafakwa lapho.

Lapho izinhlayiya zingqubuzana zakha amandla. Amandla aphakeme akhiqizwa yizinhlayiya lapho zishayisana, ubukhulu bezinhlayiya eziba nomphumela zingaba nobukhulu obukhulu. Ngoba umbono osungulwe ngu-Einstein awusunguli ubukhulu bawo, kepha anhlobonhlobo amanani angenzeka, ama-accelerator ezinhlayiyana ezinamandla aphezulu ayadingeka. Le nsimu yonke ye-physics iyindawo entsha ongayihlola. Ubunzima bokwazi nokuphenya lokhu kushayisana kwezinhlayiyana kuyinto ebiza kakhulu futhi eyinkimbinkimbi ukuyenza. Kodwa-ke, inhloso enkulu yalezi zinhlayiya zokukhulisa izinhlayiya ukuthola i-Higgs boson.

Impendulo yokuthi ngabe isifuba saseHiggs sigcine sitholakele ichaziwe ngezibalo. Kulokhu, ukuphambuka okujwayelekile kukhombisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi umphumela wokuhlola ungadakwa ngengozi esikhundleni sokuba nomphumela wangempela. Ngalesi sizathu, sidinga ukufeza ukubaluleka okukhulu kwamanani ezibalo futhi ngaleyo ndlela sandise amathuba okubuka. Khumbula ukuthi konke lokhu kuhlolwa kudinga ukuhlaziya idatha eningi ngoba i-particle collider yakha ukushayisana okungaba yizigidi ezingama-300 ngomzuzwana. Ngakho konke lokhu kushayisana, idatha evelayo kunzima ukuyenza.

Izinzuzo zomphakathi

Uma ekugcineni kutholwa isifuba seHiggs, kungaba yintuthuko emphakathini. Futhi ukuthi kuzobeka indlela ekuphenyweni kwezinye izinto eziningi zomzimba ezinjengohlobo lwendaba emnyama. Izinto ezimnyama ziyaziwa ukuthi zakha cishe i-23% yendawo yonke, kepha izakhiwo zayo azaziwa kakhulu. Kuyinselele ekuqondisweni nasekuhlolweni nge-accelerator yezinhlayiyana.

Uma isigaxa seHiggs singakaze sitholakale, kuzophoqa ukuthi kusungulwe enye inkolelo yokuthi ikwazi ukuchaza ukuthi izinhlayiya zithola kanjani ubukhulu bazo. Konke lokhu kuzoholela ekusungulweni kwezivivinyo ezintsha ezingaqinisekisa noma ziphike lo mbono omusha. Khumbula ukuthi le yindlela isayensi efaneleke ngayo. Kufanele ufune okungaziwa futhi uzame kuze kube uthola izimpendulo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-Higgs boson nezimpawu zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.