UMar Báltico

IBaltic Sea

Olunye lwezilwandle okungokwalabo ulwandle olwandle yiyona IBaltic Sea. Kuyingalo yalolu lwandle engxenyeni esenyakatho esukela ebangeni laseningizimu yeDenmark icishe ifinyelele e-Arctic Circle futhi ihlukanise inhlonhlo yaseScandinavia kulo lonke izwekazi laseYurophu. Ulwandle olubhekwa njengesandiso esikhulu samanzi amunyu emhlabeni. Akubanzi kangako ngakho-ke kudala intshisekelo enkulu emphakathini wesayensi ngenxa yetswayi eliningi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana noLwandle iBaltic, izici zalo nemvelaphi yalo.

Izici eziyinhloko

izindawo zasolwandle ezine-baltic

Kuyisandiso samanzi amunyu athathwa njengamakhulu kunawo wonke emhlabeni. Umfishane futhi awujulile kangako. Kwababhali-mlando imele ingqikithi yezomnotho yeHanseatic League futhi kososayensi idala intshisekelo enkulu. Amagama amaningi atholakele lolu lwandle ngaphezu kweminyaka emibili kufakazela ukuma kwalo kwamasu njengoba kuyindawo yokuhlangana yamazwe amaningi.

Ulwandle lwasemanzini olunamanzi amunyu oluhlangana neYurophu futhi luvulekele oLwandle OluseNyakatho kanye nolwandle i-Atlantic. Izungezwe amazwe amaningi akha inhlonhlo yaseScandinavia. Ingaphezulu kancane kwamakhilomitha ayi-1600 ubude nobubanzi obumaphakathi bezungeze amakhilomitha ayi-190. Uma ubuka uchungechunge lwamaVikings uzokwazi ukuthi lolu lwandle olusentshonalanga lunwebela enyakatho ludlule eDenmark futhi luzofaka uKattegat. IKattegat ingumugqa ohlukanisa iDenmark naseningizimu-ntshonalanga yeSweden.

Phakathi kwezici ezigqamayo kulolu lwandle, sigqamisa ukuthi ulwandle oluvaliwe maphakathi nezwe. Kubhekwa njengengalo yoLwandle i-Atlantic exhunywe yi maphakathi neKattegat Strait kanye neSkagerrak Strait. Ngikuthathe njengenye yezindikimba zamanzi ezihamba phambili emhlabeni njengoba zithola amanzi kuyo yomibili imifula nolwandle. Ukuma kwayo kunwetshiwe futhi kuncane kakhulu. Ukuphela kwendlela yokuphuma eya e-Atlantic Ocean yiKattegat Strait.

Umthamo wamanzi lolu lwandle lolwandle lusondele kumakhilomitha-skwele angama-20.000 XNUMX. Ukujula okumaphakathi kungamamitha angama-55 kuphela, ukujula okuphezulu kungamamitha angama-459. Njengoba ulwandle olungenalutho kangako, kujwayelekile ukuthi wonke usawoti ugxilise ngokushesha futhi endaweni ephakeme. Inosawoti ojwayelekile ongu-3.5%, yize kwezinye izingxenye iphesenti liphansi.

Iziqhingi ezifakiwe oLwandle iBaltic

Umnotho Wasolwandle waseBaltic

Sizobona ukuthi yiziphi izindawo ezivelele kakhulu lolu lwandle oluhamba ngazo. Izungezwe inhlonhlo yaseScandinavia futhi ilandela inkomba yokuhamba ngokwewashi lapho sithola khona amazwe alandelayo: iSweden, iFinland, iRussia, i-Estonia, iLatvia, iLithuania, iPoland, iJalimane neDenmark.

Phakathi kweziqhingi eziqokonyisiwe siyabona ukuthi lolu lwandle lunezigaba ezehlukene. Kwakuyingxenye esenyakatho yoLwandle iBothnian kanti engxenyeni esempumalanga kakhulu kwakuyiGulf of Finland neGulf of Riga. Isiqhingi esikhulu kunazo zonke kulolu lwandle yi-Islandsland Islands. Lesi siqhingi Ineziqhingi ezingama-6.700 65 kanti ezingama-XNUMX zazo yilezo ezinabantu.

Phakathi kweziqhingi ezidume kakhulu oLwandle iBaltic sinokulandelayo:

  • Fehmarn: Kuyisiqhingi eJalimane esaziwa ngokuthi isiqhingi selanga.
  • Ofihliwe: Isiqhingi esincane kunoLwandle iBaltic.
  • Inkondlo: Kuyisiqhingi esinelukuluku lokwazi, ngoba limise okonxantathu.
  • URügen: Yisiqhingi esinezindawo zezivakashi eziningi ezinezindawo zokungcebeleka zasolwandle ezidume kakhulu. Ingesinye seziqhingi ezivakashelwa kakhulu kuLwandle iBaltic lonke.

Izimbali nezilwane zoLwandle iBaltic

Imvelo yalolu lwandle iba yintandokazi kubo bonke ososayensi nakubacwaningi njengoba isabela masinyane kumathonya ahlukile angaphandle. Kodwa-ke, naphezu kwalokhu, ulwandle olubi kakhulu nge-oxygen, okusho ukuthi izilwane azifani kakhulu. Kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa kuphela zezinhlanzi lapho phakathi kwethu sithola i-perch, i-pike, i-cod, i-salmon, i-sprat, i-basking shark ne-hake. Kujwayelekile futhi ukubona ezinye izilwane ezinjenge-porpoise, ama-ringed seals, ama-otter aseYurophu nezinyoni ezinjenge unogolantethe omhlophe, idada le-havelda, ama-cranes nama-ospreys abheke ukudla ogwini lwawo.

Mayelana nezimbali, ezinomoya-mpilo omncane, zingabamba izimila ezingatheni. Awukwazi ukuthola izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo unikezwe lezi zimo ezingezinhle kuzo. Izitshalo ezigqame kakhulu esizithola lapha yi-algae ensundu, i-bladder sargassum nezitshalo zeqembu laseZostera, iCharophyta nePotamogeton.

Umnotho, ukungcola nokubaluleka

umnotho wasolwandle onosawoti

Sizobona umbono womuntu okhona ezungeze lolu lwandle. Ngokuqondene nomnotho, siyazi ukuthi kuyindlela ebalulekile yokuhanjiswa kwempahla. Aqukethe ubuqiniso cishe eminye imizila yokuhambisa engama-24 ebalulekile ekuthuthweni kwezinto zokusetshenziswa ezomile ngobuningi njengensimbi, amalahle, ithusi noma okusanhlamvu. Futhi kuyindlela ebalulekile yokuhlola nokuxhashazwa kukawoyela waseRussia. Ngakho-ke, kunokukhathazeka okuningi mayelana nokungcola kolwandle okungenzeka kube khona.

Yindawo eletha ezokuvakasha eziningi ezinkulu, yize kuyisimo esiphinde sithintwe ukungcola okubangelwa ukukhishwa kwama-hydrocarbon. Ukushintshashintsha kwezimo zemvelo nemiphumela ye-anthropogenic kuthinta kakhulu lolu lwandle. Izindawo zokudoba, ukungcola kanye nokwenziwa kwabantu yizimboni kubhubhisa izimo zemvelo zalolu lwandle.

Ngo-2010 kwaba nokwanda kwama-algae aluhlaza okwadala ukwehla okukhulu okuluhlaza ezindaweni okwadala ukuthi i-oxygen yehle kakhulu. Ngakho-ke, ingxenye yalolu lwandle ayinakuhlalwa ngakho kubhekwa njengendawo efile. Iphinde iveze inqubo yokugugulwa okudala ukuthi kubonakale ukuqhakaza kwamagciwane ezindaweni.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoLwandle iBaltic nazo zonke izici zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.