Zingaphi iinyanga anazo uJupiter?

Iinyanga ezinkulu zeplanethi

I-Jupiter yiplanethi enkulu kunazo zonke kwisixokelelwano selanga kunye neqela leeplanethi zegesi. Yiplanethi enkulu esele ifumene inani elikhulu leenyanga. Noko ke, abantu abaninzi bayazibuza zingaphi iinyanga ezinejupiter. Inenani elikhulu lazo kwaye ukwakheka kwayo kuyamangalisa.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba zingaphi iinyanga zeJupiter, ukuba zenziwe njani kunye nezinye iimpawu zabo kunye nezinto ezinomdla.

Zingaphi iinyanga anazo uJupiter?

zingaphi iinyanga ezinejupiter xa zizonke

Uphando lwakutsha nje luqinisekisile ukuba ngo-2020 Zizonke iinyanga ezingama-79 okanye iinyanga zendalo ezijikeleza iJupiter zibaliwe. Iingcali zilindele ukuba elo nani linyuke ngo-2021, njengoko inyanga entsha ifunyenwe ukususela ngenkulungwane ye-2020. Ukuba ufuna ukwazi ukuba zingaphi iinyanga zikaJupiter ukusukela ngo-600, unokufunda isifundo ngu-Edward Ashton et al. Isihloko esithi 1 XNUMX kilometer retrograde irregular moons of Jupiter.

Phakathi kweenyanga zeJupiter, iinyanga zaseGalili zibalaseleyo. Iinyanga ezi-4 ezingqukuva zafunyanwa ngo-1610 nguGalileo Galilei, owayezigqala njengenye yezona nyanga zinkulu kwisixokelelwano selanga. Ekuqaleni, UGalileo wazithiya ngokuba yiJupiter 1, Jupiter 2, Jupiter 3, neJupiter 4, ngokokulandelelana komgama ukusuka kwizijikelezi-langa. (ukusuka ngaphakathi ukuya ngaphandle). Nangona kunjalo, ngoku zaziwa ngamagama awathi uSimon Marius wacetywa kamva kwiinyanga zeJupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, kunye neCallisto.

Ezi nyanga zaseGalili zichazwe ngezantsi ziinyanga eziqhelekileyo, oko kukuthi, zakha kwi-orbit ejikeleza iiplanethi, kunokuba zibanjwe njengeenyanga ezingaqhelekanga.

Io

Io, ekwabizwa ngokuba yiJupiter 1 ngabafumani bayo, yenye yeenyanga ezi-4 zikaGalileo, eyesithathu ngobukhulu kwaye ikufutshane neJupiter (inyanga engaphakathi) inkulu kunenyanga yoMhlaba. Inobubanzi obuziikhilomitha ezimalunga ne-3.643 kunye ne-orbit Jupiter ngeentsuku ezi-1,77 kumgama weekhilomitha ezingama-421.800. Le nyanga ineempawu ezininzi:

  • Okokuqala, ineentaba-mlilo ezingaphezulu kwama-400 kumphezulu kwaye umsebenzi wejoloji mkhulu kakhulu, eneneni eyona iphakamileyo kuyo yonke inkqubo yelanga. Imalunga nantoni? Ikakhulu ngenxa yokufudumeza kwamanzi ngenxa yokukhuhlana okudalwe ngumtsalane phakathi kweJupiter kunye nezinye iinyanga ezinkulu. Isiphumo soko kukuba yintaba-mlilo ekwaziyo ukufikelela kumphakamo nangaphezulu kweekhilomitha ezingama-500, kungekho craters zibonakalayo kumphezulu.
  • umjikelo wayo iphenjelelwa yimagnethi kaJupiter kunye nokusondela kwe-Io kwiinyanga zaseGalile i-Europa neGanymede.
  • Umoya wayo uqulethe i-sulphur dioxide (SO2).
  • Inoxinano oluphezulu kunezinye izinto kwi-solar system.
  • Ekugqibeleni, ineemolekyuli zamanzi ezimbalwa kunezinye iinyanga.

Europe

zingaphi iinyanga ezinejupiter

I-Europa, okanye iJupiter II, nangona iyeyona nyanga incinci yaseGalili, enobubanzi obuziikhilomitha ezingama-3.122, yenye yezona nyanga zikaJupiter ezinomdla kakhulu. Kodwa kutheni inomtsalane nje? Inyanga inomdla kakhulu kuluntu lwezenzululwazi kuba kudala kucingwa ukuba ngaphantsi komkhenkce ongqindilili oziikhilomitha ezili-100 kukho ulwandlekazi olukhulu oluvalekayo ngenxa yobushushu obuveliswa yinuclei yeathom eyenziwe ngenickel nentsimbi. , obunokwenzeka ubomi. I-NASA yaqinisekisa ngo-2016, kwaye nangona kungekho bungqina besayensi, kukho ithemba lokuba ubomi basemanzini buya kukhula kwiisathelayithi.

Enye into ekufuneka uyiqaphele malunga ne-Europa kukuba inyanga, ene-orbital radius yeekhilomitha ezingama-671.100, ibuyela yonke indlela kwiJupiter ngeentsuku ze-3,5. Ingozi yokwakheka komhlaba engaphezulu kweemitha ezili-100 zomphakamo ibonisa ukuba i-geology yayo incinci. Ngaphandle koko, kubalulekile ukwazi ukuba i-atmosfera yayo yenziwe yimithombo ye-abiotic ye-oksijeni, kwaye umphunga wamanzi uyimveliso yokusebenzisana kokukhanya nomphezulu onomkhenkce.

UGanymede

UGalileo wayibiza ngokuba yiGanymede okanye iJupiter 3 kwaye yayiyeyona nyanga inkulu kaGalileo. Ngobubanzi obuziikhilomitha ezingama-5.262, iGanymede yodlula ubukhulu beMercury, esona sijikelezi-langa sikufutshane nelanga, yaye igqibezela iJupiter ejikelezayo eziikhilomitha ezisisi-1.070.400 ngeentsuku ezisixhenxe.

Le sathelayithi ineempawu ezininzi eziyahlula kwezinye iisathelayithi eziyinika umdla okhethekileyo:

  • Kwelinye icala, I-silicate ice moon inombindi wentsimbi engamanzi kunye nolwandle olungaphakathi apho izazinzulu zikholelwa ukuba unokungaphezu kwamanzi esi sijikelezi-langa sethu.
  • Kwakhona, inendawo yayo yamagnetic, ngokungafaniyo nezinye, ekukholelwa ukuba kungenxa yokuhanjiswa kumbindi wayo wolwelo.
  • Ukongeza ekubeni yeyona inkulu, ikwayeyona nyanga iqaqambileyo yaseGalili.

ICallisto

ICallisto okanye iJupiter IV ikwayisatellite enkulu, nangona inxinana kakhulu. Inobubanzi obuziikhilomitha ezingama-4.821 kwaye ijikeleza iikhilomitha eziyi-1.882.700 ukusuka kwiJupiter ngeentsuku ezili-17. Le nyanga yeyona ingaphandle kwezine, nto leyo enokuchaphazela into yokuba iyeyona ichaphazeleka kancinane yimagnethi kaJupiter.

Xa sithetha ngokwejoloji, ibalasele ngokuba neyona ndawo indala kakhulu kunye nokuba neatmosfera ebhityileyo eyenziwe yioksijini kunye necarbon dioxide. Kule meko, kukholelwa ukuba iCallisto inokugcina ulwandle olungaphantsi komhlaba lwamanzi alulwelo ngaphakathi kwayo.

Ezinye iinyanga zeJupiter

isijikelezi-langa esikhulu kwisixokelelwano selanga

Kwiinyanga ezingama-79 zikaJupiter, zisi-8 kuphela eziqhelekileyo. Ukongeza kwiisathelayithi ze-4 zaseGalile esele sizikhankanyile zifakwe kwi-constellation eqhelekileyo, kukho i-4 Amalthea satellites (iThebe, i-Amalthea, i-Adrastea kunye ne-Metis). Zonke zinento enye efanayo, yokuba zezona nyanga zikufutshane neJupiter, zijikeleza kwicala elinye, kwaye zine-orbital esezantsi yokuthambekela.

Ngokwahlukileyo koko, ii-orbits zeenyanga ezingaqhelekanga zi-elliptical kwaye zikude kakhulu kwiplanethi. Phakathi kweenyanga ezingaqhelekanga zeJupiter sifumana: iqela le-Himalaya, iThemisto, iCarpo kunye neValetudo.

Njengoko ubona, sele sisazi ukuba zingaphi iinyanga zeJupiter kunye neempawu eziphambili zomnye wabo. Ukuba yiplanethi enkulu kangaka, inokubamba inani elikhulu lazo. Izazinzulu ezininzi zinethemba lokuba ubomi bunokukhula kuzo. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba zingaphi iinyanga zeJupiter kwaye zeziphi iimpawu zayo eziphambili.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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