Zaye zenziwa njani iiCanary Islands

zakhiwa njani iziqithi zaseKanari

IZiqithi zaseCanary lichwebakazi elikuLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki. Zikumntla-ntshona weAfrika kwaye zibandakanya iziqithi ezisibhozo, iziqithi ezintlanu kunye namatye asibhozo ewonke. Ngokomzekelo, sithetha ngeLa Gomera, iLa Palma kunye neTenerife, i-El Hierro, iFuerteventura, iLanzarote kunye neGran Canaria. abantu abaninzi bayazibuza Zasekwa njani iiCanary Islands?

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela indlela iiCanary Islands ezenziwe ngayo, iimpawu zabo kunye nokubaluleka kwazo.

Zaye zenziwa njani iiCanary Islands

Zakhiwa njani iiCanary Islands kwimvelaphi yazo?

Ezi ziqithi zinemvelaphi yentaba-mlilo yaye zikwicwecwe laseAfrika, ngaloo ndlela zibumba ummandla weMacaronesia. Banemozulu engaphantsi, kwaye ukuguquguquka kwemozulu kuguqulela kwizinto eziphilayo. Zonke iziqithi zineendawo zolondolozo lwendalo, iipaki zesizwe kunye neendawo ezibhengezwe njengeNdawo zeLifa leMveli leHlabathi. Ngaphambi kobhubhane, izigidi zabantu zityelele iziqithi, umzekelo, ngo-2019, abakhenkethi abaqikelelwa kwi-13 lezigidi.

Imvelaphi yayo yentaba-mlilo nayo yabalwa ukuba isanda kutshanje kwixesha lomhlaba: Iminyaka engama 30 yezigidi. Iithiyori ezininzi ziqinisekisa ukuba iziqithi zenziwe ngamaxesha ahlukeneyo okanye imijikelo yentaba-mlilo, nto leyo ethetha inkqubo eqhubekayo yokuvela kunye nokuqina okulandelelanayo kodaka.

Ngoko ke, kunokuthiwa isiqithi ngasinye seli qela sinembali yalo ye-geological okanye i-antiquity yayo, iziqithi ezindala mhlawumbi i-Fuerteventura kunye neLanzarote, ilandelwa yiTenerife, i-Canary Islands kunye neLa Gomera. Ezona zikufutshane yiLa Palma kunye ne-El Hierro, ezineminyaka engaphantsi kwe-2 yezigidi ubudala.

imijikelo yomthombo

mlilo

Ingaba le nkqubo okanye umjikelo ingaba njani? Okokuqala, inqanaba elibizwa ngokuba yi-"basal complex" lenzeka, apho i-oceanic crust iphuka kwaye ibhloko iphakama, apho i-lava ephuma elwandle ifakwe khona. Kamva, isiqithi siphuma emanzini kwisigaba esaziwa ngokuba "ulwakhiwo oluphantsi komhlaba."

Ngapha koko, kukho imijikelo emibini apha, owokuqala kuthotho oludala lwenza izakhiwo ezinkulu zentaba-mlilo, kuze emva koko kuthiwe luchungechunge lwamva nje olugcinwayo namhlanje, oluphawulwa ngumsebenzi osisigxina wentaba-mlilo. Xa sidityaniswe kunye, sinokuba nomfanekiso-ngqondweni we-magma evela kumbindi weplanethi inyuka kwiintanda ezahlukeneyo kuqweqwe, iqokelelana kumgangatho wolwandle, emva koko iphuma kwinqanaba lolwandle.

Oku kwaqhubeka kangangezigidi zeminyaka yaye, njengoko sithethayo, kusaqhubeka ukuza kuthi ga namhlanje ngomphunga wamanzi, iigesi zesalfure, nogqabhuko-dubulo ngamaxesha athile. Thatha umzekelo, ugqabhuko-dubulo lwaseTeneguía eLa Palma ngo-1971 okanye kutshanje ngo-2021, xa intaba-mlilo engenagama yasigrogrisa esi siqithi kangangeentsuku ezingama-90.

IZiqithi zaseCanary ziyamangalisa ngendlela yazo, kwaye ngenxa yokuba zingomnye waloo machwebakazi ambalwa abunjwe ziintaba-mlilo ezisaqhumayo elwandle, zibangela umdla omkhulu kwizazinzulu. Ubuncinci bekukho iintaba-mlilo ezili-18 kwiminyaka engama-500, ngoko inembali yentaba-mlilo eyomeleleyo, kwaye ewe, asikasiboni isiphelo okwangoku.

Iingcamango malunga nendlela iiCanary Islands ezakhiwe ngayo

Fuerteventura

Iimpawu ezikhethekileyo zezi ziqithi ziye zaphefumlela iingcamango ezahlukahlukeneyo malunga nokusekwa kwazo. Okwexeshana, ithiyori ye-hotspot yaphumelela, ngokutsho kweziphi iziqithi ezakhiwe kumjelo we-transoceanic phakathi kweAfrika neMelika. Ngaloo ndlela iziqithi zivela kwindlela, iziqithi ezidala zikude ukusuka kwimvelaphi yazo njengoko ziqhubela phambili kwiiplate ze-lithospheric.

Enye ithiyori yithiyori eyandayo yokuqhekeka, ngokubhekiselele kuyo, kulandela imijikelo yoxinzelelo kunye nokuphumla kwe-Atlas tectonic plate, Ukuqhekeka kwenzeka kwi-lithosphere eyasasazeka ukusuka kumazwekazi ukuya kuLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki, Ukushiya ngasemva kwe-magma.

Ndimele nditsho ukuba ezi zizo zonke iithiyori kwaye azizange zamkelwe ngokupheleleyo, nangona iindawo ezishushu zishushu kakhulu. Oku kunokucacisa isizathu sokuba ezi ziqithi zisasebenza, ngaphandle kwezinye apho kungekho ntaba-mlilo irekhodiweyo ngoku. Ewe, ewe, kusekho imingxuma kule nkcazo, kodwa uphando lwezenzululwazi luyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuphendula yonke imibuzo.

Ngoko ke, ziziphi iimpawu zeCanary Islands ezintle kwaye ziyingozi? Ewe, banazo zonke iintlobo zamatye entaba-mlilo agquma lonke uluhlu lwealkaline basalts kwaye zinazo zonke iintlobo zemingxuma kwaye zi-asymmetric kakhulu ngokuxhomekeke apho umoya uvela khona kwaye uqondise i-magma kwicala elinye okanye kwelinye, ngokunjalo ukuqhuma kwe-thermoplastic kunye neebhombu, Isiqithi sikwanazo iimagma kunye neecones, ukwakheka, imingxuma, izakhiwo ezininzi zentaba-mlilo phakathi kweecalderas…

sezulu

Kwelinye icala, iziqithi zonwabela imozulu emnandi yaselwandle enemimoya yorhwebo ngenxa yokuba kufutshane netropiki kunye ne-El Golfo yangoku. Umoya utyhala amafu ukuze enze ezi lwandlekazi zintle zamafu, kwaye kwakhona unika imvakalelo yokuba amanzi aphantse avuthuluka yaye azolile.

Iziqithi zaseCanary yiparadesi enobushushu obuphakathi kwama-25 ºC unyaka wonke, ngoko ke yinto eyenzeka kwinqanaba labakhenkethi.

Ezi ziimpawu eziphambili zeziqithi:

  • IPalm: indawo ye-708,32 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha kunye nabemi be-83.458 yezigidi. Intaba-mlilo yaseTeneguía yayingabafanelanga, kodwa kulo nyaka uphelileyo kwabakho olunye ugqabhuko-dubulo olwadala umonakalo omkhulu. Sisiqithi sesibini esiphakamileyo kwiqela, kunye neyona ncopho iphakamileyo, iRoque de los Muchachos, kwi-2.426 yeemitha. Ineyona teleskopu inkulu ehlabathini – iGran Telescopio Canarias enobubanzi obuziimitha eziyi-10,40.
  • Intsimbi: Sesona siqithi sincinci kwaye sinolawulo lwaso: iikhilomitha ezingama-268,71 kunye nabemi abangamawaka ayi-11.147 kuphela. Lo nguvimba webhayosphere apho ugqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu lwangaphantsi kwamanzi lwenzeka kwiminyaka elishumi eyadlulayo. Sisiqithi sokuqala ehlabathini ukukwazi ukuzimela ngokwamandla ahlaziyekayo.
  • I-Tenerife: Esona siqithi sikhulu, 2034,38 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha. Ikwangowona mmandla unabemi abaninzi abangama-928.604 amawaka abahlali. Yaziwa njenge "Yongquan Island", ineelwandle ezintle kunye neepaki zendalo ezininzi. Ewe, yeyona ndawo ifumana abakhenkethi abatyebileyo minyaka le.
  • IGran Canaria: Sisiqithi sesibini esinabantu abaninzi kweli chwebakazi. Inommandla oziikhilomitha ezili-1560 zeekhilomitha, ingqukuva kwaye ineentaba. Ineendawo ezixabisekileyo ze-archaeology kunye neendawo ezahlukeneyo zomhlaba ukusuka kumanxweme egolide, ukutyhubela intlango ukuya kwiindawo eziluhlaza.
  • Fuerteventura: I-1659 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha, ekufutshane ne-Afrika. Ikwayeyona indala, xa sithetha ngokwejoloji, kwaye yeyona ikhukulisekileyo. Ibiyi-biosphere reserve ukusukela ngo-2009.
  • Lanzarote: Sesona siqithi sisempuma kwaye sesona sidala kuzo zonke iziqithi. Umphezulu we-845,94 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha, kwaye inkunzi yi-Arrecife. Ineentaba-mlilo kwaye ibinguvimba webhayosphere ukusukela ngo-1993.
  • Onobubele: Kude kube kutshanje ibisisiqithana nje esincinci, kodwa namhlanje sisiqithi, sisiqithi sesibhozo esimiweyo kwichwebakazi. Imalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-29 kuphela kwaye ihlala abantu abangama-751.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nendlela iiCanary Islands ezenziwe ngayo kunye neempawu zazo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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