Yintoni ukuzoba

imephu yendaleko

IJografi inamasebe amaninzi abalulekileyo afunda imiba eyahlukeneyo yesijikelezi-langa sethu. Elinye lala masebe kukuzoba iimaphu. Ukuzoba iimaphu kuko okusincedayo ukwenza iimephu esiqhele ukujikela kuzo ukuze sibe nombono weendawo. Noko ke, abantu abaninzi abazi yintoni ukuzoba nokuba luyintoni na olu qeqesho.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuze sikuxelele yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga nokuba yintoni i-cartography kunye neempawu zayo.

Yintoni ukuzoba

yintoni imephu yentlalo

I-Cartography lisebe lejografi elijongene nokumelwa kwemizobo yemimandla yejografi, ngokubanzi kwimilinganiselo emibini nangemiqathango eqhelekileyo. Ngamanye amazwi, ukuzoba iimaphu bubugcisa kunye nenzululwazi yokwenza, ukuhlalutya, ukufunda, kunye nokuqonda iimephu zazo zonke iintlobo. Ukongeza, ikwayisethi ekhoyo yeemephu kunye namaxwebhu afanayo.

Ukuzoba yinzululwazi yakudala neyanamhlanje. Izama ukuzalisekisa umnqweno womntu wokumela ngokubonakalayo umphezulu womhlaba, nto leyo enzima ngokwentelekiso kuba yi-geoid.

Ukwenza oku, inzululwazi yabhenela kwinkqubo yokuqikelela eyayicetyelwe ukusebenza njengento elinganayo phakathi kwengqukuva nenqwelomoya. Ngaloo ndlela, wakha ukulingana okubonakalayo kwee-geographic contours of the Earth, undulations yayo, ii-angles zayo, zonke zixhomekeke kwimilinganiselo ethile kunye ne-prioori criteria yokukhetha ukuba zeziphi izinto ezibalulekileyo kwaye ezingekho.

Ukubaluleka kwemephu

Ukuzoba iimaphu kubalulekile namhlanje. Kuyimfuneko kuyo yonke imisebenzi yokudityaniswa kwehlabathi, efana norhwebo lwamazwe ngamazwe kunye nokuhamba ngobuninzi belizwekazi, kuba bafuna ulwazi oluncinci malunga nokuba ziphi na izinto emhlabeni.

Kuba imilinganiselo yoMhlaba mikhulu kangangokuba akunakwenzeka ukuyiqwalasela iyonke, i-cartography yisayensi evumela ukuba sifumane uqikelelo olusondeleyo olunokwenzeka.

amasebe okuzoba

yintoni ukuzoba

Ukuzotywa kwemifanekiso kuqulathe amasebe amabini: i-cartography jikelele kunye ne-thematic cartography.

  • Ukuzotywa kwemifanekiso ngokubanzi. Ezi zimele zelizwe elibanzi, oko kukuthi, kubo bonke abaphulaphuli kunye neenjongo zolwazi. Iimephu zehlabathi, iimephu zamazwe, zonke ziyimisebenzi yeli sebe.
  • Imifanekiso-maphu enomxholo. Kwelinye icala, eli sebe ligxininisa ukumelwa kwalo ngokwejografi kwimiba ethile, izihloko okanye imimiselo ethile, njengoqoqosho, ezolimo, izinto zomkhosi, njl. Umzekelo, imephu yehlabathi yophuhliso lwamazimba iwela kweli sebe lokuzoba.

Njengoko besitshilo ekuqaleni, i-cartography inomsebenzi omkhulu: ukuchaza iplanethi yethu ngokweenkcukacha ngamaqondo ahlukeneyo okuchaneka, isikali kunye neendlela ezahlukeneyo. Kukwathetha uphononongo, uthelekiso kunye nokugxekwa kwezi mephu kunye nomelo ukuze kuxoxwe ngamandla azo, ubuthathaka, izichaso kunye nophuculo olunokwenzeka.

Ngapha koko, akukho nto yendalo malunga nemephu: yinto yokucaciswa kweteknoloji kunye nenkcubeko, umlinganiselo wokukhula komntu osuka ngokuyinxenye kwindlela esiwuthelekelela ngayo umhlaba wethu.

izinto ze-cartographic

Ukuthetha ngokubanzi, ukuzoba imephu kusekela umsebenzi wayo wokumelwa kwiseti yezinto kunye neengqiqo ezivumela ukuba zilungelelanise ngokuchanekileyo imixholo eyahlukeneyo yemephu ngokwembono ethile kunye nesikali. Ezi zinto zekhatografi zezi:

  • Isikali: Ekubeni ihlabathi likhulu kakhulu, ukulimela ngokubonakalayo, kufuneka sinciphise izinto ngendlela eqhelekileyo ukugcina umlinganiselo. Ngokuxhomekeke kwisikali esisetyenzisiweyo, imigama eqhele ukulinganiswa ngeekhilomitha iya kulinganiswa ngeesentimitha okanye iimilimitha, kumiselwa umgangatho olinganayo.
  • Ezingqameneyo: Umhlaba uzotywe ube ziiseti ezimbini zemigca, iseti yokuqala ibe yimigca enxuseneyo. Ukuba umhlaba wahlulahlulwe ube ziihemisphere ezimbini ukususela kwi-ikhweyitha, ngoko ke umgca ofanayo ngumgca onxuseneyo naloo axis ethe tyaba yentelekelelo, eyahlula umhlaba ube ziindawo zemozulu, ukuqala kweminye imigca emibini ebizwa ngokuba ziitropiki (Umhlaza neCapricorn).
  • Iimeridians: Iseti yesibini yemigca eyahlula iglowubhu ngokwengqungquthela, i-meridians perpendicular to the parallels, yi "axis" okanye umbindi wemeridian odlula kwiRoyal Greenwich Observatory (eyaziwa ngokuba yi "zero meridian" okanye "Greenwich meridian"). ) ILondon, ithiyori ingqamana ne-axis yokujikeleza koMhlaba. Ukusukela ngoko, ihlabathi lahlulahlulwe laziqingatha ezibini, lahlulwe rhoqo nge-30° ngemeridian, lahlula-hlula i-Sphere yomhlaba ibe yingqokelela yamacandelo.
  • Ukulungelelanisa: Ngokudibanisa i-latitudes kunye ne-meridians, ufumana igridi kunye nenkqubo yokulungelelanisa evumela ukuba unikeze i-latitude (enqunywe yi-latitudes) kunye ne-longitude (enqunywe yi-meridians) kuyo nayiphi na indawo emhlabeni. Ukusetyenziswa kwale ithiyori yindlela iGPS esebenza ngayo.
  • iisimboli ze-cartographic: Ezi mephu zinolwimi lwazo kwaye zinokuchonga iimpawu zomdla ngokwemigaqo ethile. Ngaloo ndlela, umzekelo, ezinye iisimboli zinikezelwa kwizixeko, ezinye kwiinqununu, ezinye kwiichweba nakwizikhululo zeenqwelo-moya, njl.

Imephu zedijithali

Ukusukela oko kwavela uguqulo lwedijithali ekupheleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, zimbalwa iinzululwazi ezisinde kwisidingo sokusebenzisa ikhompuyutha. Kule meko, i-digital cartography kukusetyenziswa kwesathelayithi kunye nokuboniswa kwedijithali xa kusenziwa iimephu.

Ngoko ke ubuchule obudala bokuzoba kunye nokushicilela ephepheni ngoku ngumcimbi womqokeleli kunye nomdala. Nkqu neyona fowuni ilula yanamhlanje iyakwazi ukufikelela kwi-Intanethi kwaye ifikelela kwiimephu zedijithali. Kukho isixa esikhulu solwazi olunokubuyiswa olunokuthi lufakwe, kwaye banokusebenza ngokubambisana.

i-cartography yentlalo

imephu yehlabathi

Imephu yentlalo yindlela edibeneyo yokwenza imephu yenxaxheba. Ijonge ukwaphula ucalucalulo oluqhelekileyo kunye nenkcubeko olukhapha imephu yendalo esekwe kwiikhrayitheriya ezizimeleyo malunga neziko lehlabathi, ukubaluleka kwengingqi kunye nezinye iindlela ezifanayo zopolitiko.

Ngoko ke, imephu yentlalo yavela kwingcamango yokuba akunakubakho msebenzi wokwenza iimephu ngaphandle koluntu, kwaye imephu kufuneka yenziwe ngokuthe tye kangangoko kunokwenzeka.

Imbali yokuzoba

I-Cartography yazalwa ngumnqweno womntu wokuphonononga kunye nokuthatha umngcipheko, eyenzeka kwangoko kakhulu embalini: iimephu zokuqala ezimbalini zisusela kuma-6000 BC. c., kubandakanywa nemifanekiso eqingqiweyo evela kwisixeko samandulo sase-Anatolian e-Çatal Hüyük. Imfuneko yokwenza imaphu mhlawumbi yayibangelwa kukusekwa kweendlela zorhwebo namalungiselelo omkhosi wokoyisa, ekubeni ngelo xesha kwakungekho lizwe linendawo.

Imephu yokuqala yehlabathi, oko kukuthi, imephu yokuqala yehlabathi lonke eyaziwa kuluntu lwaseNtshona ukususela ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX AD, ngumsebenzi kaClaudius Ptolemy waseRoma, mhlawumbi ukwanelisa umnqweno woBukhosi baseRoma obunekratshi bokuhlukanisa ubukhulu bayo. imida.

Kwelinye icala, ngexesha lamaXesha Aphakathi, I-cartography yesiArabhu yayiyeyona iphuhliswe kakhulu kwihlabathi, kwaye i-China nayo yaqala ukusuka kwi-XNUMXth century AD Kuqikelelwa ukuba malunga ne-1.100 yeemephu zehlabathi ezisindileyo ukusuka kumaXesha Aphakathi.

Ugqabhuko-dubulo lokwenyani lokuzotywa kwemifanekiso yaseNtshona lwenzeka ngokwandiswa kobukhosi bokuqala baseYurophu phakathi kwenkulungwane yeshumi elinesihlanu neyeshumi elinesixhenxe. Ekuqaleni, abadwebi beemaphu baseYurophu babekhuphela iimaphu ezindala baze bazisebenzise njengesiseko sezabo, de kwaveliswa ikhampasi, iteleskopu nokuhlola kwabenza balangazelela ukuchaneka okungakumbi.

Ke, eyona glowubhu yakudala yomhlaba, oyena mboniso umdala usaphila unamacala amathathu omboniso wehlabathi lanamhlanje, eyabhalwa ngowe-1492, yincwadi kaMartín Behaim. IUnited States (phantsi kwelo gama) yamiselwa eUnited States ngowe-1507, yaye imaphu yokuqala enamadoda aphumeleleyo eikhweyitha yavela ngowe-1527.

Endleleni, uhlobo lwefayile ye-cartographic lutshintshe kakhulu kwindalo. Iitshathi ezikumgangatho wokuqala zenziwe ngesandla ukuze zikwazi ukuhamba zisebenzisa iinkwenkwezi njengesalathiso.

Kodwa bakhawuleza boyiswa kukufika kobugcisa obutsha begraphic obunjengokushicilela kunye nelithography. Kutsha nje, ukufika kwe-electronics kunye ne-computing kuyitshintshe ngonaphakade indlela iimephu ezenziwe ngayo. Iinkqubo zesathelayithi kunye nehlabathi jikelele ngoku zibonelela ngemifanekiso echanekileyo yoMhlaba kunanini na ngaphambili.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni i-cartography kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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