yintoni ichweba

iindawo zomlambo

Kwimekobume esemhlabeni kukho iindidi ezahlukeneyo ze-ikhosistim ezixuba amanzi amatsha aphuma emilanjeni kunye namanzi anetyuwa aphuma elwandle. Ezi nkqubo zendalo zibizwa ngokuba ngamachweba. Noko ke, abantu abaninzi abazi yintoni ichweba. Yinkqubo yendalo exubeneyo enoxanduva lokuxuba amabhanti amanzi avela emilanjeni naselwandle. Le mithombo yamanzi ivalwe yimimandla yomhlaba eyenza unxweme kwaye ivuleleke elwandle.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni igumbi lokutshixa, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka.

yintoni ichweba

yintoni ichweba

Amachweba yinkqubo yokuphilisana kwezidalwa kunye neendawo zokubalekela zezityalo ezininzi nezilwanyana. Ezi zinto ziphilayo zixhomekeke kwezi zixokelelwano zendalo ukuze ziphile, zondle kwaye zizalane. Iindidi ezahlukeneyo zamachweba zihlelwa ngokommandla wokuhamba kwamanzi. La manzi aphelela elwandle, kumatheku, kumachibi, kumachibi, kwimiyezo okanye kwimisele. Amachweba axuba amanzi amatsha aphuma kumjelo kunye namanzi anetyuwa aphuma elwandle. Olu ngquzulwano lwamanzi anetyuwa eyohlukeneyo lukhokelela kunxunguphalo olukhulu.

Namhlanje ichweba lomlambo lisetyenziswa njengendawo ngamanye amaxesha esetyenziselwa ukuzonwabisa, ukhenketho kunye neenjongo zenzululwazi. Enye yeempawu zayo eziphambili kukuba yenye yezona ndawo zinemveliso kakhulu kwiplanethi yonke. Kulapha apho uninzi lwezinto eziphilayo ziveliswa kwizondlo zomhlaba ezithwalwa yimilambo kwaye, kwelinye icala, kwizondlo ezithwalwa ziilwandlekazi.

Njengenkqubo evaliweyo, lutshintshiselwano lwemathiriyeli evela kwiinkqubo ezininzi ezingabamelwane. Ngokuqhelekileyo, ziindawo ezinzulu kakhulu, nto leyo ethetha ukuba ukukhanya kunokungena lula emanzini. Ngenxa yezi meko zokusingqongileyo, izinga lephotosynthesis kwichweba lechweba liphezulu kakhulu. Konke oku kunegalelo kwimveliso elungileyo yokuqala. Kufuneka kwakhona kukhunjulwe ukuba iintlobo ezininzi zokusetyenziswa kwabantu zihlala kumachweba, njenge-crustaceans, i-molluscs kunye neentlanzi ezithile.

Enye yezakhono zamachweba kukugcina isixa esikhulu samanzi kunye nokuthintela izikhukhula. Zikwanceda ukuthintela umonakalo ongaselunxwemeni ngexesha lezaqhwithi. Ngoko ke, zikwabaluleke kakhulu kulawulo lwabemi. Kwezinye iimeko, ukuqukuqela kwemilambo kuthwala amanzi amaninzi, nto leyo ebangela ukuba intlenga kunye nezinto ezingcolisayo zitshintshwe. Ngombulelo kulo msinga womelele, amanzi ahlala ecocekile.

Zenziwe njani

yintoni ichweba kunye neempawu

Amachweba axubana namanzi amatsha ukwenza amachweba njengoko amanzi olwandle ephuma kumanzi olwandle ngexesha lokuza kwamaza. Emva koko, xa amaza aphantsi, amanzi acocekileyo agalela elwandle. Oku kubangele umgxobhozo omkhulu kule ndawo.

Amachweba ayilwe ngumxube wamanzi amatsha kunye netyuwa enza i-ikhosistim eyohlukeneyo, apho iintlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana ezifumaneka kule mimandla zidibana khona. Amachweba ziindawo zotshintsho apho amanzi amaninzi adibana namanye kufutshane nolwandle. Adla ngokuba ngamanzi ashushu anenkqubo yawo yendalo ethile.

Imigxobhozo idla ngokubumba, kodwa kwiindawo ezitshisayo sinokufumana iimangrove, ezizezinye iindawo ezinomgxobhozo. Banendalo eyahlukahlukeneyo. Singafumana amachweba anzulu ngakumbi okanye angaphantsi, aneendawo ezinomgxobhozo okanye ezinamatye.

Izilwanyana zineentlobo ngeentlobo, yaye ezi ndawo zifak’ isandla kwizinto eziphilayo ezininzi kwesi sijikelezi-langa kangangokuba ubukhulu bawo bunokuthelekiswa namahlathi okanye ingca. Iindawo zokuhlala zezilwanyana zasendle ezibaluleke kakhulu zenziwe kwezi ndawo, kwaye Zikwasebenza njengokucoca amanzi.

Uqoqosho lwemimandla emininzi engaselunxwemeni lusekelwe kumachweba ngenxa yobuninzi beentlanzi, iishellfish, okanye i-algae. Ziindawo ezidumileyo zokhenketho, ukubukela iintaka kuxhaphake kakhulu kwezi ndawo, kwaye ziindawo ezizinikele kulwazi nemfundo yenzululwazi.

uhlobo lwechweba

Kukho iindidi ngeendidi zamachweba ngokuxhomekeke kwiimpawu ezithile eziphambili. Udidi ngalunye lwechweba lumiselwa lunxulumano phakathi komthamo wamanzi omlambo ngexesha lokuza kwamaza kunye nobungakanani bamanzi amaza ngokwawo. Apha sinokufumana iindidi ezininzi zamachweba:

  • Ichweba leSalt Wedges: Iyenzeka xa kukho amanzi amaninzi emlanjeni kunaselwandle. Ngale ndlela sinomxube onomaleko obhityileyo oguqukayo phakathi kwamanzi omlambo phezulu kunye nencam engezantsi.
  • Amachweba anezizaba eziphezulu: Kwezi ntlobo zamachweba, ubungakanani bamanzi angenatyuwa angenayo mkhulu kunolwamanzi olwandle, kodwa hayi kakhulu. Ezi meko zibangela ukuba imixube yamanzi phakathi kwemizimba eyahlukeneyo yamanzi ide idale umaleko onetyuwa engaphezulu njengoko amaza esisa amanzi olwandle ngaphezulu. Xa la manzi mabini exubene, enza umaleko.
  • Ichweba lechweba elincinane: Ichweba apho umthamo wamanzi omlambo ungaphantsi kwalowo wamanzi olwandle. Xa kuthelekiswa nazo zombini, ubutyuwa bala manzi butshintshe kakhulu. Kumaleko angaphezulu, ubutyuwa buyaguquka, njengomaleko ongezantsi. Oku kungenxa yokuba imisinga ikhawuleza kakhulu.
  • Ichweba lokuxuba elithe nkqo: Kulolu hlobo lwegumbi lokutshixa, umthamo wamanzi amatsha awubalulekanga ngokumalunga nomthamo wamaza. Apha ukongamela ngokubanzi kweelokhari ezinetyuwa efanayo zikongamela. Ekubeni kungekho nakuphi na ukutshintshiselana kwamanzi, akukho tshintsho kwityuwa. Kwakhona akukho maleko athe nkqo kuluhlu lwamanzi.
  • umva ichweba: Ibhekisa kuhlobo lwechweba elingabonelelwanga ngumlambo. Oku kungenxa yokuba zikhona kwiindawo ezinamaqondo aphezulu okuguquka kwamanzi. Ukuguquka kwamanzi kubangela ukugxila kwetyuwa kube phezulu kakhulu. Kwakhona, ngenxa yokulahleka kwamanzi, iyatshona ngenxa yokwanda koxinzelelo ngenxa yokuba inetyuwa eninzi.
  • Amachweba okwethutyana: zinokuba luhlobo oluthile okanye olunye, kuxhomekeka kwimvula ekhoyo ngelo xesha. Kulapha apho, kuxhomekeke kwisixa semvula ngomzuzu ngamnye, kukho iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokukhetha. Ukuba bezingaphezulu, umlambo ubuya kuthwala amanzi amaninzi.

Izityalo nezilwanyana kwichweba

izilwanyana zasendle zasechwebeni

Ichweba lechweba lenziwe ziintlobo ngeentlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana. Uninzi lwezityalo zasemanzini. Iingcongolo, iingcongolo kunye nebhagi zigqamile. I-ecosystem equka imangrove inokufunyanwa kumachweba amaninzi. Ezi ziintlobo zemithi ezikwaziyo ukumelana neemeko zamanzi anetyuwa. Ziqhelaniswa nomhlaba omanzi kwaye kukho malunga neentlobo ezingama-70 zemangrove. Imangrove emhlophe, emnyama, ebomvu kunye nengwevu ibalasele.

Inxalenye yezityalo ezinxulunyaniswa nemithi yemango yingca yolwandle. Unokufumana kwakhona iindawo zamathafa e-algae kunye neninzi ye-phytoplankton. Ngokuphathelele izilwanyana, kukwakho neentlobo ngeentlobo zezilwanyana. Eyona nto ibalaseleyo kuzo yizooplankton, kuba ukukhanya kwelanga kungena emanzini kakuhle kakhulu.. Ezi zooplankton zondla iintlanzi ze-estuarine, ngakumbi i-herring, i-sardines kunye nee-anchovies. Kukwakho nenani elikhulu leemolluscs, iicrustaceans, izilwanyana ezanyisayo, iintaka kunye nezinye ezirhubuluzayo.

Amachweba anokusuka kuyo nayiphi na imozulu, nokuba kukwimozulu eshushu, epholileyo okanye ebandayo, kuxhomekeka kwisibanzi sendawo ekuyo. Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yesimo sayo sonxweme, imozulu yayo iphenjelelwa bubunzima bolwandle. Ngaloo ndlela, nakwiindawo ezibandayo, imozulu ayifani naleyo ingaphakathi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni na ichweba kunye neempawu zalo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.