Yintoni asteroids

asteroid kwindalo yonke

Kwi-astronomy, i-meteorites kunye ne-asteroids zikhankanywe ngamaxesha amaninzi. Abantu abaninzi bayathandabuza ukuba yintoni umahluko phakathi kwabo kunye yintoni asteroids Ngokwenene. Ukuqonda ngokupheleleyo zonke iimpawu zenkqubo yethu yelanga, kuyimfuneko ukwazi ukuba yintoni i-asteroids.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba yintoni i-asteroids, zeziphi iimpawu zabo, imvelaphi kunye nobungozi.

Yintoni asteroids

yintoni asteroids

I-asteroids ngamatye asemajukujukwini amancinci kakhulu kuneeplanethi kwaye ajikeleza ilanga kwii-elliptical orbits kunye nezigidi ze-asteroids, uninzi lwabo kwinto ebizwa ngokuba yi "asteroid belt". Ezinye zisasazwa kwiindlela zezinye iiplanethi kwi-solar system, kuquka noMhlaba.

Ii-asteroids zingumxholo wophando oluqhubekayo ngenxa yokuba kufuphi noMhlaba. Ngaphandle kwento yokuba baye bafikelela kwiplanethi yethu kwixesha elidlulileyo, amathuba okuba nempembelelo iphantsi kakhulu. Enyanisweni, izazinzulu ezininzi zithi ukunyamalala kweedinosaurs kubangelwa yimpembelelo yeasteroid.

Igama elithi asteroid livela kwigama lesiGrike elithetha "umfanekiso weenkwenkwezi," ebhekisela kwinkangeleko yabo ngenxa yokuba zibukeka njengeenkwenkwezi xa zijongwa ngeteleskopu eMhlabeni. Ebudeni benkulungwane ye-XNUMX, Ii-asteroids zazibizwa ngokuba yi "planetoids" okanye "iiplanethi ezincinci."

Ezinye zantlitheka kwisijikelezi-langa sethu. Xa zingena kwiatmosfera, ziyakhanya zize zibe ziimeteorite. Ezona asteroids zikhulu ngamanye amaxesha zibizwa ngokuba zii-asteroids. Abanye abantu banamaqabane. Eyona asteroid inkulu yiCeres, malunga neekhilomitha ezili-1.000 ububanzi. Ngo-2006, i-International Astronomical Union (IAU) yayichaza njengeplanethi encinci efana nePluto. Emva koko iVesta kunye nePallas, i-525 km. Ishumi elinesithandathu lifunyenwe kwi-240 km, kwaye ezininzi ezincinci.

Ubunzima obudityanisiweyo bazo zonke ii-asteroids kwisixokelelwano selanga bungaphantsi kakhulu kunobenyanga. Ezona zinto zinkulu zirhangqa, kodwa izinto ezingaphantsi kweemayile ezili-160 ububanzi zinemilo emide, engaqhelekanga. Abantu abaninzi badinga phakathi kweeyure ezi-5 ukuya kwezi-20 ukugqiba ujikelo olunye kwishafti.

Zimbalwa izazinzulu ezicinga ngeeasteroids njengentsalela yeeplanethi ezitshatyalalisiwe. Ngokunokwenzeka, bahlala kwindawo kwisixokelelwano selanga apho iplanethi enkulu inokwakheka, hayi ngenxa yempembelelo etshabalalisayo kaJupiter.

Umvelaphi

Ingqikelelo ibambe ukuba ii-asteroids ziintsalela zamafu erhasi nothuli olwathi lwajiya xa iLanga noMhlaba zayila malunga nezigidi ezihlanu zeminyaka eyadlulayo. Ezinye zezinto ezivela kwelo lifu zaqokelelana embindini, zenza undoqo owadala ilanga.

Ezinye izinto zijikeleze i-nucleus entsha, zenza iziqwenga zobukhulu obuhlukeneyo ezibizwa ngokuba yi "asteroids." Ezi zivela kwiindawo ezinokuthi azifakwanga elangeni okanye kwizijikelezi-langa zesijikelezi-langa.

uhlobo lwe asteroids

iintlobo ze-asteroids

Ii-asteroids zohlulwe zibe ngamaqela amathathu ngokusekelwe kwindawo yazo kunye nodidi lwamaqela:

  • Asteroids kwibhanti. Zezo zifumaneka kwiindlela ezijikeleza isithuba okanye kumda ophakathi kweMars neJupiter. Eli bhanti liqulethe uninzi lwezo zikwinkqubo yelanga.
  • Centaur asteroid. Zijikeleza kwimida phakathi kweJupiter okanye iSaturn naphakathi kweUranus okanye iNeptune, ngokulandelanayo.
  • iAsteroid yetrojan. Zezo zabelana ngokujikeleza kweplanethi kodwa oko akwenzi mahluko ngokubanzi.

Abo basondeleyo kwisijikelezi-langa sethu bahlulwe ngokweendidi ezintathu:

  • Asteroids Uthando. Zezo zidlula kwi-orbit ye-Mars.
  • Apollo Asteroids. Ezo ziwela i-orbit yomhlaba ngoko zisisoyikiso esinxulumeneyo (nangona ingozi yempembelelo iphantsi).
  • Ukutya ii-asteroids. Ezo ndawo zidlula kwi-orbit yomhlaba.

Iimpawu eziphambili

yintoni asteroids esithubeni

Ii-asteroids zibonakaliswa ngumxhuzulane obuthathaka kakhulu, othintela ukuba zingqukuva ngokugqibeleleyo. Ubukhulu bawo bunokwahluka ukusuka kwiimitha ezimbalwa ukuya kumakhulu eekhilomitha.

Ziqulunqwe ngeentsimbi kunye namatye (udongwe, ilitye le-silicate kunye ne-nickel-iron) ngokomlinganiselo onokuhluka ngokohlobo ngalunye lomzimba wasezulwini. Azinamoya kwaye ezinye zinenyanga enye ubuncinane.

Ukusuka kumphezulu woMhlaba, ii-asteroids zibonakala ngathi ziindawo ezincinci zokukhanya njengeenkwenkwezi. Ngenxa yobukhulu bayo obuncinci kunye nomgama omkhulu ukusuka eMhlabeni, ulwazi lwakhe lusekelwe kwi-astrometry kunye ne-radiometry, i-curves yokukhanya kunye ne-spectroscopy yokufunxa (izibalo zeenkwenkwezi ezivumela ukuba siqonde ubuninzi benkqubo yelanga).

Yiyiphi i-asteroids kunye nee-comets ezifanayo kukuba zombini izidalwa zasezulwini ezijikeleza ilanga, zihlala zithatha iindlela ezingaqhelekanga (ezifana nokusondela elangeni okanye ezinye iiplanethi), kwaye ziyizinto eziseleyo zezinto ezakha inkqubo yelanga.

Nangona kunjalo, ziyahluka kuba iikhomethi zenziwe ngothuli nerhasi, kwakunye neenkozo zomkhenkce. IiComets zaziwa ngemisila okanye iindledlana ezizishiya ngasemva, nangona zingasoloko zishiya iindlela.

Njengoko ziqulathe umkhenkce, isimo sazo kunye nenkangeleko ziya kuhluka ngokuxhomekeka kumgama wazo ukusuka elangeni: ziya kubanda kakhulu kwaye zibe mnyama xa zikude nelanga, okanye ziya kufudumala kwaye zikhuphe uthuli kunye negesi (kungoko imvelaphi contrail). Kufuphi nelanga Iicomets kucingelwa ukuba zifake amanzi kunye nezinye iikhompawundi eziphilayo eMhlabeni xa zaziqala ukubunjwa.

Kukho iindidi ezimbini zeekayiti:

  • ixesha elifutshane. IiComets ezithatha iminyaka engaphantsi kwama-200 ukujikeleza ilanga.
  • ixesha elide IiComets ezenza iindlela ezinde nezingalindelekanga. Banokuthabatha iminyaka efikelela kwizigidi ezingama-30 ukugqiba umjikelo omnye wokujikeleza ilanga.

Ibhanti ye-Asteroid

Ibhanti ye-asteroid iquka umanyano okanye uqikelelo lwezidalwa ezininzi zezulu ezisasazwa ngendlela yeringi (okanye ibhanti), ephakathi kwemida yeMars kunye neJupiter. Kuqikelelwa ukuba inee-asteroids ezinkulu ezimalunga namakhulu amabini (ikhulu leekhilomitha ububanzi) kunye neeasteroids ezincinci eziphantse zibe sisigidi (ikhilomitha enye ububanzi). Ngenxa yobukhulu be-asteroid, ezine zachongwa njengezibalaseleyo:

  • ICeres. Yeyona inkulu ebhantini kwaye iyona kuphela esondele kakhulu ekuthathweni njengeplanethi ngenxa yobume bayo obungqukuva obuchazwe kakuhle.
  • IVesta. Yeyesibini ngobukhulu iasteroid kwibhanti kwaye yeyona inkulu kwaye ixineneyo. Imilo yayo yingqukuva ethe tyaba.
  • Pallas. Yeyesithathu ngobukhulu kwiibhanti kwaye inomzila othambekele kancinane, okhethekileyo kubukhulu bayo.
  • Hygia. Yesine ngobukhulu ebhantini, inobubanzi obungamakhulu amane eekhilomitha. Umphezulu wayo umnyama kwaye kunzima ukuyifunda.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-asteroids kunye neempawu zabo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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