Lenziwa nini iLanga?

xa ilanga livela

Ngenxa yelanga sinokuba nobomi kwisijikelezi-langa sethu. Umhlaba ukwindawo ekunokuhlalwa kuyo apho, ngenxa yomgama osuka elangeni, sinokubongeza ubomi. Noko ke, izazinzulu bezisoloko zithandabuza lavela nini ilanga kwaye ukusuka apho yaveliswa njani inkqubo yelanga esinayo namhlanje.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela xa ilanga lenziwe, iimpawu zalo kunye nokubaluleka.

Liyintoni ilanga

inkqubo yelanga

Ilanga silibiza ngokuba yeyona nkwenkwezi ikufutshane nesijikelezi-langa sethu (iikhilomitha ezili-149,6 lezigidi). Zonke iiplanethi ezikwisijikelezi-langa ziyayijikeleza, zitsalwa ngumxhuzulane wayo, kunye nee<em>comets neeasteroids ezihamba nazo. ILanga yinkwenkwezi eqhelekileyo kumnyele wethu, oko kukuthi, alibonakali ngokuba likhulu okanye lincinci kunezinye iinkwenkwezi.

YiG2 emthubi etyheli ehamba kulandelelwano olungundoqo lobomi bayo. Ilele kwingalo ejikelezayo emaphethelweni eMilky Way, malunga neminyaka engama-26.000 yokukhanya ukusuka kumbindi wayo. Inkulu ngokwaneleyo ukuba i-akhawunti ye-99% yobunzima benkqubo yelanga, okanye amaxesha angama-743 ubukhulu bazo zonke iiplanethi zeplanethi efanayo zidibene (malunga ne-330.000 amaxesha obunzima boMhlaba).

Ilanga kwelinye icala, Inobubanzi obuzizigidi ezisisi-1,4 seekhilomitha kwaye iyeyona nto inkulu neqaqambileyo kwisibhakabhaka soMhlaba., ubukho bakhe bahlula imini kubusuku. Ngenxa yokusoloko ekhupha imitha ye-electromagnetic radiation (kuquka nokukhanya okucingelwayo), isijikelezi-langa sethu sifumana ubushushu nokukhanya, nto leyo eyenza ubomi bubekho.

Lenziwa nini iLanga?

xa ilanga laliqala ukuvela

Njengazo zonke iinkwenkwezi, iLanga lenze igesi kunye nezinye izinto ezaziyinxalenye yelifu leemolekyuli ezinkulu. Ilifu lawa phantsi komxhuzulane walo kwiminyaka eyi-4.600 yeebhiliyoni eyadlulayo. Yonke inkqubo yelanga ivela kwilifu elifanayo.

Ekugqibeleni, umbindi wegesi uxinene kangangokuba ubangele ukusabela kwenyukliya “okutshisa” undoqo wenkwenkwezi. Le yeyona nkqubo iqhelekileyo yokwakheka kwezi zinto.

Njengoko ihydrogen yelanga itshatyalaliswa, iguqulwa ibe yihelium. ILanga yibhola enkulu yeplasma, ephantse ibe setyhula ngokupheleleyo, yenziwe ikakhulu yihydrogen (74,9%) kunye nehelium (23,8%). Ukongeza, iqulethe izinto zokulandelela (2%) ezifana ne-oxygen, i-carbon, neon kunye nentsimbi.

I-Hydrogen, into evuthayo yelanga, iguqulela kwi-helium xa idliwe, ishiya uluhlu lwe "helium ash." Lo maleko uya kwanda njengoko inkwenkwezi igqibezela umjikelo wayo ongundoqo wobomi.

Isakhiwo kunye neempawu

Iimpawu zelanga

Undoqo uthatha isinye kwisihlanu sokwakheka kwelanga. Ilanga lingqukuva kwaye lithe tyaba kancinci ezipalini ngenxa yokujikeleza kwalo. Ibhalansi yayo yomzimba (i-hydrostatic force) ingenxa ye-counterweight yangaphakathi yamandla amakhulu omxhuzulane onika ubunzima bayo kunye nokutyhalwa kogqabhuko-dubulo lwangaphakathi. Olu gqabhuko-dubulo luveliswa yintshukumo yenyukliya yokudityaniswa okukhulu kwehydrogen.

Yakhiwe ngokwemigangatho, njengetswele. Le maleko zezi:

  • Inyukliya. Indawo engaphakathi. Ithatha isinye kwisihlanu senkwenkwezi kwaye inommandla omalunga ne-139.000 yeekhilomitha. Kulapho ugqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu lweathom lwenzeka elangeni. Umtsalane ombindi womelele kangangokuba amandla aveliswa ngolu hlobo anokuthabatha iminyaka esisigidi ukuze anyukele phezulu.
  • Indawo ekhanyayo. Yenziwe ngeplasma (i-helium kunye ne-hydrogen ionized). Le ndawo ivumela amandla angaphakathi ukusuka elangeni ukuba aphume ngokulula ngaphandle, ukunciphisa kakhulu ubushushu kule ndawo.
  • indawo yokuhambisa. Kulo mmandla, igesi ayisekho i-ionized, ngoko kunzima kakhulu ukuba amandla (iifotoni) abaleke aye ngaphandle kwaye kufuneka enziwe nge-thermal convection. Oku kuthetha ukuba ulwelo lutshisa ngokulinganayo, lubangela ukwanda, ukulahleka koxinaniso, kunye nokunyuka nokuhla kwemisinga, njengamaza.
  • Photosphere. Lo ngummandla okhupha ukukhanya okubonakalayo elangeni. Kukholelwa ukuba ziinkozo eziqaqambileyo kumphezulu omnyama, nangona ingumaleko okhanyayo malunga ne-100 ukuya kwi-200 yeekhilomitha ubunzulu ekukholelwa ukuba bubunzulu beLanga.
  • I-Chromosphere. Umaleko wangaphandle wefotosphere ngokwawo uguquguquka ngakumbi kwaye unzima ukubonwa ngenxa yokuba ufihliwe kukukhanya komgangatho wangaphambili. Ilinganisa malunga neekhilomitha ezili-10.000 ububanzi, kwaye ngexesha lokusithwa kwelanga yilanga kunokubonwa ngombala obomvu ngaphandle.
  • Isithsaba selanga. Ezi zingqimba ze-thinnest ze-atmosphere ye-solar yangaphandle kwaye zishushu kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nezona maleko angaphakathi. Le yenye yeemfihlakalo ezingasonjululwanga zendalo yelanga. Kukho ingxinano ephantsi ye-matter kunye ne-magnetic field enzulu, apho amandla kunye ne-matter ihamba ngesantya esiphezulu kakhulu. Ukongezelela, ingumthombo weeX-reyi ezininzi.

ubushushu belanga

Ubushushu belanga buyohluka ngokwemimandla kwaye buphezulu kakhulu kuyo yonke imimandla. Kumaqondo obushushu ayo angundoqo kufutshane ne-1,36 x 106 iKelvin (emalunga ne-15 lezigidi zeedigri ngokukaCelsius) inokubhalwa, ngelixa kumphezulu iwela malunga ne-5778 K (malunga ne-5505 °C) kwaye emva koko phezulu ku-1 okanye ku-2 Rise x 105 Kelvin.

Ilanga likhupha imitha yemitha ye-electromagnetic, eminye yayo inokubonwa njengokukhanya kwelanga. Oku kukhanya kunoluhlu lwamandla lwe-1368 W/m2 kunye nomgama weyunithi enye ye-astronomical (AU), engumgama ukusuka eMhlabeni ukuya elangeni.

La mandla athotywa ngumoya weplanethi, ovumela malunga ne-1000 W/m2 ukuba idlule emini emaqanda. Ukukhanya kwelanga kwenziwa yi-50% yokukhanya kwe-infrared, i-40% yokukhanya kwi-spectrum ebonakalayo, kunye ne-10% yokukhanya kwe-ultraviolet.

Njengoko ubona, kungenxa yale nkwenkwezi iphakathi ukuba sibe nobomi kwiplanethi yethu. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba ilanga lenziwe nini kunye neempawu zalo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.