ISalar de Uyuni, eyona ndawo inkulu yokugcina i-lithium emhlabeni

uyuni ityuwa flat

El Indawo yetyuwa yase Uyuni yintlango emangalisayo nenkulu yetyuwa efumaneka kumzantsi-ntshona weBolivia, kwingingqi yasePotosí. Lo mmangaliso wendalo yeyona flethi inkulu yetyuwa emhlabeni, ithatha malunga ne-10,000 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha. Ikwanayo neyona ndawo inkulu yokugcina i-lithium ehlabathini. Amawaka abakhenkethi abakhenkethi baya kule nto yokuthetha apha enyakeni.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ngeempawu zeSalar de Uyuni, ukubaluleka kwayo kunye nezinto ezinomdla.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ukubonakaliswa kwamanzi anetyuwa

Ifumaneka kwiAltiplano yaseBolivia, kwiiAndes. Igqalwa njengenye yeZimangaliso zeNdalo ezingama-25 zoMhlaba. Yeyona ntlango inkulu yetyuwa emhlabeni kunye nommandla we-10.500 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha.

Iiflethi zetyuwa ziqulunqwe ngamacandelo ahlukeneyo, umzekelo: ziqulethe ixabiso elikhulu le-potassium, i-boron kunye ne-magnesium, kwaye nazo zineendawo ezinkulu zokugcina i-lithium. Iiflethi zetyuwa zineetoni ezingaphezu kwe-10.000 yezigidi zetyuwa, apho iitoni ezingama-25.000 ziyafumaneka ukuze zisetyenziswe ngaphakathi nangaphandle.

Njengoko ityuwa yayininzi, abahlali baqala ukwakha iindawo zokuhlala zabo ngetyuwa enikezelwa yiUyuni. Kwakhona iye yaba yenye yezona ndawo zinkulu zokugcinwa kwe-lithium emhlabeni.

Iiflethi zetyuwa zinenani elikhulu lamachibi angaphambili. Ngommandla oziikhilomitha ezingama-60, iLake Colorado yenziwe ngobulembu kwaye inombala obomvu owahlukileyo.

Eli chibi likhaya leeflamingo, iillama kunye neempungutye. Ii-cougars kunye namaxhalanga anempandla azifane zibonwe. Amanzi afumaneka kwi-Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve.

Iiflethi ezinkulu zetyuwa zihlala ziphefumla, zenza amatye amile okwe-hexagonal, abonakala ngexesha lonyaka ukusuka ku-Epreli ukuya ekuqaleni kukaDisemba. Abanye bakholelwa ukuba iindawo zasemaphandleni zihlala zitshintsha okanye zoma.

Ekupheleni kwexesha leemvula (ngoFebruwari-Matshi), iiflethi zetyuwa ziguqulwa zibe sisibuko ngenxa yeminerali ebizwa ngokuba yi-Ulexite, "ilitye likamabonwakude". Ingafihli kwaye inamandla okuguqula imifanekiso engaphandle.

Ityuwa ibangela ukuba amanzi aqokelelene phezu komhlaba, ukudala isibuko esikhethekileyo. Ukubona ukuphuma kwelanga kwiimbonakalo ezinkulu ezidalwe ziiflethi zetyuwa ngamava angenakuchazwa ukuba wonke umhambi kufuneka abe nawo.

Ingcwaba likaloliwe elayekiswa ukusebenza lidada kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX kumbindi we-Uyuni. Iinqwelo ezinomhlwa kunye noololiwe baye bafunyanwa besasazeke kumhlaba omkhenkce wealtiplano yaseBolivia.

Iziqithi zeSalar de Uyuni

salar de uyuni iimpawu

isiqithi sase-incahuasi

Isiqithi esisembindini weeflethi zetyuwa, isiqithi sigqunywe ngecacti ukuya kuthi ga kwi-10 yeemitha ukuphakama. Igama lakho lithetha ukuthi: "Indlu yamaInca" ngolwimi lwesiQuechua. Kukho indlela ekhokelela esiqithini ukuze kubekho enye i-engile yokujonga ulwandle kunye nesibhakabhaka esibonelelwa ziiflethi zetyuwa.

kwisiqithi intlanzi

Ifumaneka emazantsi eeflethi zetyuwa, yenye yezona ndawo zibalaseleyo zokubona ukuphuma kwelanga kwiiflethi zetyuwa, ejikelezwe yicacti. Xa abahlali bejonga isiqithi ngexesha likaJanuwari noFebruwari. bathi kuthatha imilo yeentlanzi ngenxa yempembelelo ye-optical eyenziwe yizibuko.

I-Train Cemetery ibe yindawo egcwele amabali kunye neenkumbulo zexesha elidlulileyo, apho iindwendwe ziyakwazi ukubona amabhodlo oololiwe ababephangiwe ngaphambili.

Izinto ezinomdla kwiSalar de Uyuni

izipili zetyuwa

Ezi zezona zinto zibalulekileyo ezikhethwa ngamawaka abakhenkethi minyaka le:

  • Isibuko esikhulu: Ngexesha lemvula, amanzi angekho nzulu agqume ityuwa ethe tyaba enza isipili esisibonakalisa ngokugqibeleleyo isibhakabhaka namafu. Lo mboniso wamehlo udala inkohliso yokuba ihorizon imfiliba, inika imvakalelo yokuba uhamba emafini.
  • Zola umgama: Ubukhulu bebhati yetyuwa kunye nomphezulu wayo osicaba kwenza iimbono zidideke. Izinto ezikude zinokubonakala zisondele kakhulu kunokuba zinjalo, zingcolisa imbono yendawo kunye nomgama.
  • Ihotele yeTyuwa: KwiSalar de Uyuni, kukho ihotele eyakhiwe ngokuyintloko ngeebhloko zetyuwa. Le ndawo inikezela ngamava akhethekileyo kubakhenkethi abafuna ukulala emagumbini enziwe ngetyuwa kwaye banandipha umoya oyingqayizivele wendawo.
  • Izityalo zetyuwa: Ngexesha lembalela, abantu basekuhlaleni basebenza ngokuqokelela ityuwa kwisalari. Basebenzisa iindlela zemveli ukukhupha kunye nokuqokelela iimfumba zetyuwa eziya kuthi kamva zilungiswe ukuze zisetyenziswe kwimizi-mveliso nasemakhaya.
  • Isixhobo sobuchule: Njengoko benditshilo ngaphambili, i-flat yetyuwa ngumthombo omkhulu we-lithium, icandelo eliphambili kwiibhetri ze-lithium-ion ezisetyenziselwa izixhobo zombane kunye neenqwelo zombane. Imfuno ekhulayo ye-lithium kwishishini langoku inike lo mmandla ukubaluleka ngakumbi.
  • Isiqithi saseIncahuasi: Esi siqithi samatye esiphakathi kwetyuwa, ngaphezu kwe-cacti yayo enkulu, iqulethe iifosili kunye neentsalela ze-archaeological. Igama layo livela kwigama lesiQuechua elithi "Inca" kunye "nohuasi", elithetha "indlu ye-Inca".
  • Iziphumo ezibonakalayo: Abahambi bahlala bethatha ithuba lokukhohlisa okubonelelwa yi-flat yetyuwa ukwenza iifoto ezimnandi kunye nobuchule. Ngenxa yokungabikho kwamanqaku okubhekisela, kunokwenzeka ukudlala ngombono kunye nobukhulu bezinto kwimifanekiso.

iindawo zokugcina i-lithium

I-Salar de Uyuni ineendawo ezinkulu zokugcina i-lithium emhlabeni kwaye inamandla okuvelisa i-20% ye-lithium ekhoyo yokuthengisa.

Oku kuthetha inzuzo enkulu yezoqoqosho eBolivia, imigodi ye-lithium kunye nemveliso kunye neeprojekthi zorhwebo ezixabisa izigidi zeedola. Ingxelo yakutshanje evela kwi-SRK Mining Consulting ibonisa ukuba iSalar de Uyuni yodwa iqulethe i-21 yezigidi zeetoni ze-lithium.

Kwiingcali, yinto ekrwada enokuthi ikwazi ukwenza utshintsho lwamandla ukusuka kwioli, oko kukuthi, i-lithium yinto engabonakaliyo yendalo enokuthi iguqule uqoqosho "luhlaza". I-Lithium isetyenziswa kwiimotor zombane, iibhetri ze-lithium, iikhomputha zelaptop, ii-smartphones, kunye neebhetri ezinokutshajwa kwakhona.

Nangona kunjalo, ukutsalwa kwayo akukho lula kwaye kuneendleko eziphezulu zokusingqongileyo. Abavukuzi bakhupha i-lithium ngokupompa amanzi ahlala phantsi kweeflethi zetyuwa, kwaye xa ilanga lilawula ukulikhupha, i-lithium carbonate iqokelelwa.

Ngoku, xa inkqubo igqityiwe, amanzi anetyuwa aphuma emhadini ayoma kwaye iinkampani zemigodi kufuneka zikhuphe amanzi amatsha ukucoca oomatshini nemibhobho. Inkqubo iphinda ivelise i-post-enzymes, uhlobo lwesichumisi.

Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba amanzi amatsha anqabile kwiindawo eziyintlango, echaphazela abantu abakufutshane, izityalo nezilwanyana, kunye nezolimo. Ngamanye amazwi, ukuba i-lithium reserves isetyenziswe ngokugqithiseleyo, amanzi okusela abantu asemngciphekweni.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neSalar de Uyuni kunye neempawu zayo.


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