Iphondo laseAfrika

iimpawu zophondo lweAfrika

El Iphondo laseAfrika ngumhlaba omkhulu ophuma kwindawo esempuma yelizwekazi laseAfrika. Ilele phakathi koLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya empuma kunye neGulf of Aden emantla, inaba amakhulu eekhilomitha kuLwandle lwaseArabia. Lilonke, uphondo lweAfrika kuqikelelwa ukuba lugubungela indawo engaphezulu kwe-772,200 yeekhilomitha ezingama-90,2, uninzi lwayo olunemozulu eyomileyo neyomileyo. Phezu kwazo nje iimeko ezinzima zokuphila kwiindawo ezininzi zalo mmandla, kutshanje kuqikelelwa ukuba abemi balo mmandla bamalunga nezigidi ezingama-XNUMX.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga ne-Horn ye-Afrika, iimpawu zayo, uqoqosho kunye nezinto ezinomdla.

Yintoni uphondo lweAfrika kwaye lufumaneka phi

uphondo lweAfrika

Lo mmandla ukwiNtshona Afrika kwaye ugqalwa njengowona mmandla uhlwempuzekileyo ehlabathini. Indlala ibisoloko isongela ubomi bomntu. Kukholelwa ukuba le yindawo apho uluntu lwaqala khona.

Uphondo lweAfrika lukumazantsi elizwekazi laseAfrika kwaye lolona mmandla lungazinzanga ehlabathini. Yenziwe ngamazwe asibhozo ahlukeneyo: I-Eritrea, i-Ethiopia, iKenya, iSomalia, iSudan, iUganda, iSouth Sudan, kunye neDjibouti. Yindawo enomdla kumandla aseYurophu naseMelika kuba indawo ekuyo ibaluleke kakhulu kurhwebo lwaselwandle, iinqwelo zeoyile kunye nempahla.

Uphondo lwaseAfrika luthiywe ngegama lokumila kwalo elingunxantathu. Imbali yayo iqalela kumazwe ase-Afrika ase-Ethiopia, e-Eritrea naseYemen, kwaye yakhula phakathi kwenkulungwane yesi-XNUMX neye-XNUMX. Kumaxesha amandulo, yayikwasetyenziswa njengomthombo wemithombo yebhayoloji, ngeehambo zokuhlola imore, intlaka yokuqhumisa, neziqholo. Lo mmandla ngoku uthathwa njengokwingxaki ethatha ixesha elide. Phezu kwako nje ukubaluleka kwabemi, kwabakho iimfazwe ezimbini ezinkulu apho, imfazwe phakathi kwe-Ethiopia neSomalia, nemfazwe phakathi kwe-Ethiopia ne-Eritrea.

Lo mmandla udla ngokuchatshazelwa yimbalela okanye izikhukula kwaye ingxaki yobuntu kule ndawo imbi kakhulu. Phakathi kowe-1982 no-1992, indlala kunye imfazwe ibulale abantu abamalunga nezigidi ezi-2.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Ethiopia

Ezona mpawu zibalaseleyo zeHorn of Africa zezi zilandelayo:

  • Umahluko ophambili kukuba kukho amathafa awomileyo namathafa aphantsi abizwa ngokuba ziiNtaba zaseTopiya; ezahlulwe zibe ngamacandelo amabini ziintlambo zokuqhekeka.
  • Sithetha nje, olu phondo lunohlaza oluninzi, olufana ne<em>heather, ingca, neentyatyambo ezincinane ezityheli ezaziwa ngokuba yiSt.
  • Nangona uninzi lwalo mmandla lubharhile okanye lubharhile, intlambo ye-rift iphawulwe ngoluhlu lweentaba kunye neentaba.
  • Uluhlu lweentaba zaseSimien lolunye lwezona ntaba zinkulu kwaye zibalulekileyo esinokuzifumana.
  • Nangona izilwanyana ezininzi zisebenzisa le ndawo njengekhaya lazo, indibaniselwano yelizwe elirhabaxa kunye nemozulu idala imeko-bume enzima yokuzala kwezilwanyana.
  • Zininzi izilwanyana ezirhubuluzayo ezifumaneka kwiphondo laseAfrika kunayo nayiphi na enye indawo yelizwekazi laseAfrika.
  • Ukufikelela emanzini kulukhuthazo kwizilwanyana zasendle ezisemathafeni, kuba inkoliso yoMmandla we-Afrika ifumana imvula encinane kakhulu yonyaka.
  • Kwintshona nakumazantsi eTiyopiya nakwimimandla esemazantsi e-Eritrea, iimvula ezinkulu zexesha leemvula zonyusa imvula yonyaka.

Uphondo lwe-Afrika lwenziwe ngala mazwe alandelayo: i-Eritrea, i-Ethiopia, iKenya, iSomalia, iSudan, iSouth Sudan, iUganda kunye neDjibouti.

Uqoqosho kunye neengxabano kwi-Horn ye-Afrika

izilwanyana eAfrika

Ukudodobala kwezoqoqosho kuMbindi weAfrika ubukhulu becala kwabangelwa yimbalela elandelelanayo eyathi yalichaphazela, yabangela eyona ngxaki yakha yanzima yokutya. ilizwe liye lahlala kwaye labangela indlala yokuqala yenkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Ukunqongophala kokutya kukhokelela ekuguleni nasekuphenduleni okuphantsi, kwaye kunzima ukufikelela ezindleleni nabamelwane abazama ukusaba kukhokelela ekuxineni okunemiphumo emibi.

Phakathi kwamazwe abumba uphondo lwe-Afrika, i-Ethiopia ibe lelona lizwe libalulekileyo ngenxa yobume boluntu, uphuhliso loqoqosho kunye nendima yokuzinzisa kulo mmandla. Lilizwe lesibini elinabantu abaninzi kwi-Horn ye-Afrika kunye nomqhubi oyintloko wozinzo kwi-Horn ye-Afrika. Kuyafaneleka ukukhankanya ukuba i-Ethiopia iye yaba kolunye loqoqosho olukhula ngokukhawuleza eMpuma Afrika.

Lo mmandla ubukwingxaki. Amaqela eentlanga ezahlukeneyo akhuphisana ngemithombo kunye nendawo. Imfazwe eqhubekayo kulo mmandla ibangele ukubhubha kwamawakawaka, nto leyo ethetha ukuba ilizwe alinalo naluphi na uhlobo lorhulumente wesizwe wokubakhokela.

Phakathi kweengxabano kwiikoloni, sinokukhankanya:

  • Imfazwe yokuqala yase-Italo-Ethiopia
  • Dervish ukumelana
  • Imfazwe yesiBini ye-Italo-Ethiopia

Ngexesha leMfazwe Yehlabathi yokuqala, iphulo leMpuma Afrika lenzeka kwiphondo leAfrika; ngeMfazwe Yehlabathi II kwakukho nephulo leMpuma Afrika. Kukwakho iingxabano ezahlukeneyo kwindawo kule mihla, umzekelo:

  • Imfazwe yase-Eritrea yokuzimela
  • Imfazwe yamakhaya yase-Ethiopia
  • Imfazwe yaseOgaden
  • Imfazwe yamakhaya yaseDjibouti
  • Imfazwe yaseTopiya kunye ne-Eritrea
  • Imfazwe yamakhaya yaseSomalia

Indlala nobuqhetseba

Ingxaki yokutya kwiNxibe ye-Afrika idweliswe njengendlala kwaye ithathwa njengeyona imbi kakhulu ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1960. Umbutho weZizwe eziManyeneyo ubhengeze lo mmandla ngesilumkiso esibomvu, yaye kuyaqondwa ukuba bamalunga nesigidi abantu ababulawa yindlala. Ukungabikho koncedo lwamazwe ngamazwe, iingxaki zokhuseleko lwelizwe kunye neengxabano zenza kube nzima ukuphendula kunye noncedo loluntu ukuba luvele.

Imbalela yenye yeengxaki eziphambili, ezinye iindawo azikhange zine imvula malunga neminyaka emibini. Oku kunokukhokelela ekulahlekeni kwemfuyo nezityalo, nto leyo enokukhokelela kwindlala nezifo.

Iingcali zikholelwa ekubeni ukuba akuthatyathwa manyathelo angxamisekileyo, indlala iya kunwenwela nakwamanye amazwe abumba uphondo lweAfrika. Ukungondleki, amaxabiso aphezulu kwezinye iimveliso kunye nokungenelela kwamaqela abavukeli kuye kwawufaka engxakini enkulu le mihla le..

Le yingxaki eqhubekayo kunye nesisongelo kwiinqanawa zamazwe ngamazwe kunye nemisebenzi yokuloba apho. Ithumele iipatroli zomkhosi kunye ne-United States egameni leManyano yaseYurophu. Ukususela ngo-2011, nangona kukho ukuhla, ingxaki ayizange iphele ngokupheleleyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nophondo lweAfrika kunye neempawu zalo.


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