umlambo iYordan

Umlambo waseJordan kwibhayibhile

El umlambo iYordan ngumlambo omxinwa oziikhilomitha ezingama-320 ubude. Isuka kwiiNtaba ze-Anti-Lebanon kumantla akwaSirayeli, iye kugaleleka kuLwandle lwaseGalili kumazantsi eNtaba yeHermon, ize iphele kuLwandle Olufileyo kumazantsi ayo. Yenza umda phakathi kweYordan kunye noSirayeli. Umlambo iYordan ngowona mlambo mkhulu, ungcwele kwaye ubaluleke kakhulu kwiLizwe eliNgcwele kwaye ukhankanywe kaninzi eBhayibhileni.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu, imbali, i-geology kunye nokubaluleka koMlambo iYordan.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Izoyikiso zoMlambo iYordan

Enye yezinto ezikhethekileyo zoMlambo iYordan yileyo ingaphezulu kweekhilomitha ezingama-360 ubude, kodwa ngenxa yendlela ejikajikayo ngayo, owona mgama phakathi komthombo walo kunye noLwandle Olufileyo ungaphantsi kweekhilomitha ezingama-200. Emva kowe-1948, umlambo waphawula umda phakathi kwe-Israel ne-Jordan, ukusuka kumazantsi oLwandle lwaseGalili ukuya apho umlambo i-Abis uhamba khona ukusuka empuma (ekhohlo).

Nangona kunjalo, ukususela ngo-1967, xa imikhosi yase-Israel ithatha i-West Bank (oko kukuthi, ummandla we-West Bank osemazantsi ekudibaneni kwayo noMlambo i-Ibis), uMlambo iYordan uye wanda emazantsi ukuya elwandle njengomgca wokuphela komlilo.

AmaGrike abiza umlambo iAulon kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ama-Arabhu ayewubiza ngokuthi Al-Sharī'ah ("indawo yamanzi okusela"). AmaKristu, amaYuda namaSilamsi ayawuhlonela uMlambo iYordan. Kwakusemanzini awo apho uYesu wabhaptizwayo nguYohane oNgcwele uMbhaptizi. Umlambo ubusoloko uyingcwele yonqulo nendawo yokubhaptiza.

UMlambo iYordan unemithombo emithathu eyintloko, yonke ephuma emazantsi eNtaba yeHermon. Olona lude kwezi yiḤāṣbānī, kufutshane neḤāṣbayyā eLebhanon, kubude obuziimitha ezili-1800. (550m). UMlambo iBanias unqumla eSiriya usuka ngasempuma. Embindini nguMlambo wakwaDan, omanzi awo ahlaziyayo ngokukhethekileyo.

Kanye ngaphakathi kwaSirayeli, le milambo mithathu idibana kwiNtlambo yaseHula. Ekuqaleni ithafa lentlambo ye<em>Ḥula lalizaliswe ngamachibi nemigxobhozo, kodwa ngeminyaka yee-1950 malunga nezikwekhilomitha ezingama-60 zakhutshelwa amanzi ukuze kwenziwe iifama. Ngeminyaka yee-1990, inxalenye enkulu yomgangatho wentlambo yonakele kwaye iinxalenye zazintywiliselwe emanzini.

Kwagqitywa ekubeni kugcinwe ichibi kunye nemigxobhozo engqongileyo njengendawo yolondolozo lwendalo ekhuselweyo, kwaye ezinye izityalo nezilwanyana, ngakumbi iintaka ezifudukayo, zibuyela kwindawo leyo. Kumazantsi ale ntlambo, uMlambo iYordan unqumla umwonyo ngomqobo webasalt. Umlambo wehla ngomnqantsa ukuya ngasemantla kunxweme loLwandle lwaseGalili.

Ukwakhiwa koMlambo iYordan

Umlambo iJordan ulele phezu kweNtlambo yeJordan, ukuxinezeleka kumhlaba ophakathi kwe-Israel ne-Jordan okwakhiwa ngexesha le-Miocene xa i-plate yase-Arabia yafudukela emantla kwaye emva koko empuma kude ne-Afrika yanamhlanje. Emva kweminyaka emalunga nesigidi esi-1, laphakama ilizwe, lwazotha ulwandle. I-Triassic kunye ne-Mesozoic strata ziye zafunyanwa kwimpuma-mbindi we-Jordan Valley.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zoMlambo iYordan

israel umlambo

Ngokungathandabuzekiyo uMlambo iYordan unqumla kumbindi wemimandla eyinkqantosi yeMpuma Ekufuphi. Uninzi lwe umhlaba ochumileyo ufumaneka kwiWest Bank nakwimpuma nentshona yoMlambo iJordan. Kwesi sitya unokufumana ukusuka kwimimandla yeMeditera engaphantsi komswakama ukuya kwimimandla ebharhileyo apho iintlobo ziqhelaniswa khona ukuhlala.

Kukho neentlanzi ezifana Luciobarbus longiceps, Acanthobrama lissneri, Haplochromis flaviijosephi, Pseudophoxinus libani, Salaria fluviatilis, Zenarchopterus dispar, Pseudophoxinus drusensis, Garra ghorensis kunye ne-Oxynoemacheilus insignis; iimolluscs melanopsis ammonis y melanopsis costata kunye neecrustaceans ezifana Potamon potam kunye nezo zodidi lwe-Emerita. Izilwanyana ezanyisayo ezinjengeempuku zihlala kwisitya Mus macedonicus kunye ne-otter yase-Eurasia (ILutra lutra); izinambuzane ezifana ICalopteryx syriaca neentaka ezifana nentaka yaseSinayi (ICarpodacus synoicu).

Ngokubhekiselele kwizityalo, izihlahla, izihlahla kunye neengca zihamba phambili, kwaye kwiindawo phezulu kukhula iminquma, imisedare, ieucalyptus, imioki nemipayini, kwaye ekugqibeleni kuhluma amatyholo anameva.

Ukubaluleka kwezoqoqosho

Amanzi oMlambo iYordan ngowona mthombo wamanzi ubalulekileyo kwaSirayeli. Amanzi amaninzi asetyenziselwa ukuxhasa ezolimo kunye neefama, kwaye njengoko abemi bemilambo bekhula kwaye noqoqosho lukhula, ukumpompa amanzi kubalulekile ukuhlangabezana neemfuno zabahlali. IYordan iyodwa ifumana ama-50 ezigidi zeekyubhikimitha zamanzi kuMlambo iYordan.

Iimfuno zamanzi kwezolimo kunye nosetyenziso lwasekhaya ziphezulu; kwelinye icala, iimfuno zamanzi zecandelo lezoshishino zincinci kakhulu. Oku kungenxa yokwanda kwenani kunye nesikali semizi-mveliso kwi-Gulf ye-Aqaba yendawo yoshishino kunye nommandla woLwandle oluFileyo.

Iinkqubo

umlambo iYordan

Owayesakuba ngumlambo ococekileyo nokhuselekileyo, uMlambo iYordan ngoku sele ungcoliseke kakhulu kwaye unetyuwa eninzi yamanzi. Ngokomgaqo, umlambo utyhutyha owona mmandla unabemi abaninzi kakhulu kwaye unqongophele ngamanzi emhlabeni, ngoko ke ukusetyenziswa kwemithombo yawo yendalo kudla ngokugqithisa amandla awo okuhlaziya. Kuqikelelwa ukuba ukuqukuqela komlambo kuncitshiswe ukuya kutsho kwi-2% yomlambo wawo wokuqala. Umphunga ophezulu, imozulu eyomileyo, kunye nokumpompa okugqithisileyo kukhokelela ekuphumeni kwetyuwa. Ngamafutshane, abantu balikhathalele ikamva loMlambo iYordan kunye nabantu abakummandla wawo.

Ukuthintela iingxaki ezinzulu zemekobume, eminye imibutho noorhulumente baye bahlanganisana ukuze banikel’ ingqalelo kulawulo oluzinzileyo lwemithombo yomlambo. Umjelo wamanzi acwengileyo kummandla oqhelekileyo oyinkqantosi kuMbindi Mpuma, uMlambo iYordan ungumthombo obalulekileyo, owahlukileyo noxabisekileyo kwizigidi zabantu abahlala kufutshane nawo.

Iphulukene phantse ne-98% yokuhamba kwayo erekhodiweyo ukuba ilizwe lisebenzisa amanzi alo (I-Israel, iSiriya, iJordan kunye nePalestina) mhlawumbi iya koma kwiminyaka embalwa ezayo. Ngaphandle kwamanyathelo abambekayo kunye asebenzayo. USirayeli, iSyria kunye neJordan zinoxanduva lokudilika koMlambo iYordan, umlambo apho uYesu wabhaptizwa khona, ngoku ongumjelo wamanzi amdaka ovuleleke esibhakabhakeni apho kuqukuqela amawaka eecubhic metres zamanzi amdaka. Amanzi oLwandle lwaseGalili noLwandle Olufileyo, iikhilomitha ezili-105 ukuya emazantsi, ayagalelwa ngomlinganiselo omalunga ne-1.300 yeebhiliyoni zeekyubhikimitha ngonyaka.

Ilizwe lakwaSirayeli lihlala lihambisa amanzi, emele malunga ne-46,47% yokuhamba kusetyenziso lwasekhaya kunye nemveliso yezolimo; ISyria yi-25,24%, iJordani 23,24% kunye nePalestine 5,05%. Ke ngoko, uMlambo iYordan awusengowona mthombo wamanzi acocekileyo akumgangatho ophezulu, kwaye ukuhamba kwawo ngoku kunzima ukufikelela kwi-20-30 yezigidi ze-cubic metres ngonyaka.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga noMlambo iYordan kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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