umkhenkce

IiPyrenees glaciers

El umkhenkce yaziwa njengoluhlu lweziganeko ezinxulumene nomkhenkce. Kwelinye icala, umkhenkce yintaphane yomkhenkce eqokelelana kwimimandla esezintabeni egqunywe likhephu elihlala lihleli, nelithi umzantsi walo utyibilika kancinane njengomlambo. I-glacierism iba yinto ebaluleke kakhulu ebusweni bokufunda ngejoloji kwiintlambo kunye neentaba.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuze sikuxelele yonke into oyifunayo malunga nomkhenkce kunye nomkhenkce.

Yintoni i-glacialism

glacierism kunye nokubaluleka

Kufanelekile ukukhankanya ukuba umkhenkce udla ngokusetyenziswa njengesithethantonye sokukhenkceza. Zombini ezi ngcinga zinokubhekisa ekudalweni komkhenkce kunye nokungena komkhenkce okwenzeke kwimimandla emininzi emikhulu kwixesha elidlulileyo.

Ngokukodwa, umkhenkce, ixesha elide kakhulu apho ubushushu boMhlaba buyehla, kubangela ukuba umkhenkce kunye namaqhekeza omkhenkce adada kwiilwandlekazi ezimhlophe ukuba ande. Kule meko, kufuneka sithethe ngamaxesha ahlukeneyo emkhenkce, elona gama lamva nje libizwa ngokuba yiWürm, yaqala kwiminyaka eli-110.000 XNUMX eyadlulayo yaza yathabatha iminyaka emalunga nesigidi.

Njengenyaniso enomdla, kufuneka sibonise ukuba, ngokwendlela isebe le-geography ebonakalayo eyaziwa ngokuba yi-glaciology echaza ngayo ingcamango, enye yeempawu zayo eziphambili kubukho be-ice sheets kuzo zombini i-hemispheres (eMazantsi naseNyakatho). Ukuba kunjalo, sisekwixesha lomkhenkce namhlanje, njengoko zombini iAntarctica neGreenland zinemikhenkce yomkhenkce.

Yintoni imikhenkce

umkhenkce

Iingqimba zomkhenkce kukholelwa ukuba ziintsalela zexesha lokugqibela lomkhenkce. Ngelo xesha, amaqondo obushushu aphantsi kakhulu ayenyanzela ukuba umkhenkce uye kwindawo esezantsi apho imozulu ishushu ngoku. Namhlanje sinokufumana iindidi ezahlukahlukeneyo zomkhenkce kwiintaba zawo onke amazwekazi ngaphandle kweOstreliya nezinye iziqithi zolwandlekazi. Phakathi kobubanzi obungama-35°N kunye nama-35°S, imikhenkce zinokubonwa kuphela kwiiRocky Mountains, eAndes, eHimalaya, eNew Guinea, eMexico, eMpuma Afrika, nakwiNtaba iZad Kuh. (I-Iran).

I-glaciers ithatha malunga ne-10 ekhulwini lomhlaba wonke womhlaba. Ngokuqhelekileyo zifumaneka kwimimandla ye-alpine kuba iimeko zokusingqongileyo zikulungele. Oko kukuthi, ubushushu buphantsi kwaye imvula iphezulu. Siyazi ngohlobo lwemvula ebizwa ngokuba yimvula yeentaba, eyenzeka xa umoya unyuka kwaye ekugqibeleni ujiya, imvula ena phezu kwentaba. Ukuba iqondo lobushushu lihlala lingaphantsi kwe-0 degrees, le mvula iya kubonakala njengekhephu kwaye ekugqibeleni iya kuhlala kude kube ngumkhenkce.

Iimitha zomkhenkce ezifumaneka kwiintaba eziphakamileyo nakwimimandla yencam encanyana inamagama ahlukeneyo. Ezo zibonakala kwiintaba eziphakamileyo zibizwa ngokuba yimikhenkce yealpine, ngoxa imikhenkce emhlophe ibizwa ngokuba yimikhenkce. Ngamaxesha onyaka afudumeleyo, ezinye zikhupha amanzi anyibilikayo ngenxa yokunyibilika komkhenkce, nto leyo eyenza amanzi abalulekileyo kwizityalo nezilwanyana. Kwakhona, aluncedo olukhulu ebantwini njengoko la manzi ebonelelwa abantu. Lelona dama likhulu lamanzi acocekileyo eMhlabeni, liqulathe ukuya kutsho kwiikota ezintathu zamanzi acocekileyo.

Umkhenkce wenziwe ngamacandelo ahlukeneyo.

  • Indawo yokuqokelela. Yeyona ndawo iphakamileyo apho ikhephu liwela khona kwaye liqokelelene.
  • Indawo yokurhoxisa. Kule ndawo, iinkqubo zokudityaniswa kunye nomphunga zenzeka. Yilapho i-glacier ifinyelela khona ukulinganisela phakathi kokunyuka kunye nokulahleka kobunzima.
  • Iintanda. Yeyona mimandla apho umkhenkce ugeleza ngokukhawuleza.
  • Moraines. Ezi ziibhanti ezimnyama ezenziwa zizidalwa ezakha emaphethelweni nakumphezulu. Amatye atsalwa ngumkhenkce ayagcinwa aze abunjwe kwezi ndawo.
  • Indawo yokukhwelela. Sisiphelo esisezantsi somkhenkce apho ikhephu eliqokelelweyo liyanyibilika.

imilo ekroliweyo

mongo

Ingqikelelo yomkhenkce ikwahlala isetyenziselwa ukubhekisa kwinkqubo yokukhulula imodeli ukusuka ekwehleni okucacileyo kobushushu, okukhokelela kuphuhliso lwemikhenkce. Ngale ndlela, ukuba ukuhla ngokuqhubekayo kwiqondo lokushisa kurekhodwa kwindawo, i-glacier yenziwa: umkhenkce uyenzeka.

Ngoko ke, umkhenkce ngumphumo wemozulu. Ngokomzekelo, xa i-glacier ifom, ikhula ngenxa yegalelo lomkhenkce emanzini abandayo, ikhephu kunye nee-avalanches. Ii-glaciers, nazo, zilahlekelwa ubunzima ngenxa yokwahlula kunye nokunyuka kwamanzi e-icebergs. Umahluko phakathi kokulahlekelwa kunye nokufumana ubunzima ubizwa ngokuba yi-glacial equilibrium.

I-glacierism kwi-Quaternary

Nangona sinokufumana ubungqina bomkhenkce kwiipochs ezahlukeneyo zejoloji, into ebizwa ngokuba yi-Quaternary glaciation yeyona ivuselela umdla kubaphandi kuba ilifa layo linokubonwa kwimbonakalo yomhlaba yangoku. Kwimeko nayiphi na into, kuyafaneleka ukucacisa ukuba eli gama linikezelwe kwiPleistocene kwaye akufanele lidideke kunye neHolocene.

Umkhenkce wePleistocene wenzeka ngenxa yokuqhaqhazeka okubandayo okanye ukukhenkceza kweQuaternary, oku kulandelayo: IGunz, iMindel, iRiss kunye neWürm. Kule mihla, kuyinto eqhelekileyo ukwamkela obunye ubukho, obubizwa ngokuba nguDonan, obuya kuba ngaphambi kwezinye ezine.

Kubonwe konke oku, kwi-Peninsula yase-Iberia, indawo ye-glacial iquka inani elikhulu leengqungquthela. Ubungqina kuphela obufanelekileyo be-Quaternary glacial action esiyifumene kwi-Iberian Cordillera yi-massif ebizwa ngokuba yi-Moncayo: i-Castilla, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-Peña Negra, i-Lobera ne-Moncayo, kunye nokuphakama kwe-2118 m kunye ne-2226 m ngokulandelanayo kunye ne-2316 m. Emazantsi-mpuma ineencopho ezisezantsi ezifana neSierra del Taranzo kunye neSierra del Tablado.

Ubushushu bukazwe lonke

Olu nxulumano lusondeleyo phakathi komkhenkce nemozulu luye lwenza ukuba umkhenkce ube ngumxholo onomdla kwizazinzulu nakubalondolozi bendalo. Ngaloo ndlela, ukufudumala kwehlabathi kuchaphazela umkhenkce kwaye kukhuthaze ukuhlehla kunye nokunyamalala komkhenkce. Yiyo loo nto iinzame zokucotha kunye nokubuyisela umva utshintsho lwemozulu zibaluleke kakhulu kwiplanethi.

Njengoko ubona, i-glacialism ibaluleke kakhulu ekufundeni i-geology yeentlambo kunye neentaba. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-glacialism kunye neempawu zayo.


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