Umfanekiso womngxuma omnyama kumnyele wethu

umfanekiso womngxuma omnyama kumnyele wethu

Kwiminyaka emithathu eyadlulayo, uluntu lwezenzululwazi lwe-Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) lothuse umhlaba ngefoto yokuqala yomngxuma omnyama owabanjwa kumnyele ongummelwane we-M87. Ngoku, iqela elifanayo liye labonisa okokuqala ubungqina obucacileyo obubonakalayo ngomfanekiso wokuqala womngxuma omnyama kumnyele wethu, kusetyenziswa imigqaliselo evela kuthungelwano lwehlabathi lweeteleskopu zikanomathotholo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela indlela umfanekiso womngxuma omnyama kwi-galaxy yethu efunyenwe ngayo kwaye yintoni imiphumo yayo.

Thatha umfanekiso womngxuma omnyama kumnyele wethu

sagittarius a

Le yiSagittarius A *, umthombo wemitha oguquguqukayo kakhulu otshintsha rhoqo. Izazinzulu bezisoloko zisebenzisa i-algorithms iminyaka ukwenza kwakhona ukuvela kwayo ngokuhamba kwexesha ngokungathi "yimuvi", kodwa ngoku baye baphumelela yaye banikela imifanekiso yabo emileyo.

Ukongeza kwiseti yamaphepha apapashwe kuhlelo olukhethekileyo lweeLeta zeJenali ye-Astrophysical, iQela le-Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration Team liveze isiganeko esibalulekileyo namhlanje kuthotho lweenkomfa zamazwe ngamazwe zangaxeshanye kwihlabathi jikelele.

"Lo ngumfanekiso wokuqala weSagittarius A *, umngxuma omnyama omkhulu kumbindi weMilky Way, nto leyo iphindwe ngezigidi ezi-4 ngaphezu kweLanga. Sinikezela ngobungqina bokuqala obubonakalayo bobukho babo, utshilo uSara Issaoun, iHarvard Astrophysicist A Centre Research Fellow, ethetha kwikomkhulu laseYurophu Observatory (ESO) eMunich, eJamani.

Iziphumo zanikela ubungqina obubambekayo bokuba le nto yayingumngxuma omnyama kwaye yanika umkhondo oxabisekileyo malunga nokusebenza kwezi nkwenkwezi zinkulu, ekucingelwa ukuba zisembindini weminyele emininzi.

Ngokutsho kwezazinzulu ezingaphezu kwama-300 ezivela kumaziko angama-80 abandakanyekayo ekufumaneni, umngxuma omkhulu "unobunzima" malunga nezigidi ezi-4 zobunzima belanga, kummandla ongekho mkhulu kunenkqubo yethu yelanga, Iminyaka engama-27.000 yokukhanya ukusuka kwiplanethi yethu. Ngokwembono yethu, ubukhulu bedonathi enyangeni esibhakabhakeni.

ubungqina bokuqala obubonakalayo

ifoto yomfanekiso womngxuma omnyama womnyele wethu

Umfanekiso yinkangeleko ekudala ilindelwe kwinto enkulu esembindini womnyele wethu. Izazinzulu zibonile iinkwenkwezi ezijikeleza ezinye izinto ezinkulu kakhulu, ezihlangeneyo, ezingabonakaliyo kumbindi weMilky Way. Oku kubonisa ngamandla ukuba umzimba wesibhakabhaka iSadge A* ngumngxuma omnyama.

Nangona singenakuwubona umngxuma omnyama ngokwawo ngenxa yokuba mnyama ngokupheleleyo, irhasi evuthayo ewujikelezileyo ibonisa uphawu olwahlukileyo: ummandla omnyama osembindini (obizwa ngokuba sisithunzi) ongqongwe sisakhiwo sesangqa esiqaqambileyo. Imbono entsha ibamba ukukhanya okugotywe ngumxhuzulane onamandla womngxuma omnyama.

"Sasimangalisa ukuba ubungakanani bomsesane buhambelana nokuqikelelwa kwe-theory ye-Einstein ye-relativity," watsho uGeoffrey Bower, usosayensi oyintloko weprojekthi ye-EHT kwiZiko le-Astronomy kunye ne-Astrophysics, i-Academia Sinica, eTaipei. “Oku kubonwa kungazange kubonwe ngaphambili kuyiphucula kakhulu indlela esikuqonda ngayo okwenzekayo kumbindi womnyele wethu kunye ukunika ulwazi olutsha malunga nendlela imingxunya emikhulu emnyama edibana ngayo nokusingqongileyo«.

Ukuqwalasela into ekude ngolo hlobo kuya kufuna iteleskopu elingana noMhlaba, nokuba kunjalo okanye ngokulinganayo, kwaye yiloo nto enokufezwa yi-EHT. Iqulathe iiteleskopu zikanomathotholo ezisibhozo ezibekwe eChile, eMelika, eMexico, eSpain naseMazantsi ePole. E-USA, eqhutywa yi-European Southern Observatory (ESO) kunye namanye amaqabane angamazwe ngamazwe kwintlango ye-Atacama e-Chile, eYurophu i-Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) eSierra Nevada (Granada) ivelele.

I-EHT yaqaphela i-Sagittarius A * ngobusuku obuninzi obulandelelanayo, iqokelela idatha ngeeyure, kufana nokusebenzisa utyhileko olude kwikhamera emileyo. Phakathi kweeteleskopu zikanomathotholo ezenza i-EHT, i-antenna ye-IRAM ye Iimitha ezingama-30 ubude zidlale indima ebalulekileyo kwimigqaliselo, ivumela ukufumana imifanekiso yokuqala.

Ngobuchule obubizwa ngokuba yi-interferometry yereferensi ende (VLBI, esebenzisa ukusebenza kwezibalo endaweni yeelensi), imiqondiso esuka kuzo zonke iiteleskopu zikanomathotholo ziye zadityaniswa kwaye idatha yazo yalungiswa ngoomgaqo-nkqubo kunye neekhompyutha ezinkulu ukuze bakhe ngokutsha owona mfanekiso ubalaseleyo.

UThalia Traianou, umphandi kwi-Andalusian Institute of Astrophysics (IAA-CSIC), uyongezelela: "Iteknoloji iya kusivumela ukuba sifumane imifanekiso emitsha yemingxuma emnyama kunye neefilimu."

Imingxuma emibini efanayo emnyama

Indlela yobisi

Ngokubhekiselele kumfanekiso womngxunya omnyama kumnyele iM87 othathwe ngo-2019, izazinzulu ziyavuma ukuba imingxunya emibini emnyama ibonakala ifana kakhulu, nangona umngxuma omnyama kumnyele wethu. incinci ngokuphindwe nge-1000 kwaye ingaphantsi kune-M87*, ekumgama weminyaka engama-55 yezigidi zokukhanya.. Inkwenkwezi enkulu inobunzima obuzibhiliyoni eziyi-6.500 zelanga kunye nobubanzi beekhilomitha ezili-9.000 zeebhiliyoni, nto leyo ethetha ukuba isixokelelwano selanga ukuya kwiNeptune siya kungena kuyo.

"Sineentlobo ezimbini ezahlukeneyo zeminyele kunye neentlobo ezimbini ezihlukeneyo zemingxuma emnyama, kodwa kufuphi nemiphetho yale mingxuma emnyama, zibukeka zifana ngokumangalisayo," watsho uSera Markoff, usihlalo-sihlalo weKomiti yeSayensi ye-EHT kunye nonjingalwazi we-astrophysics. kwiYunivesithi yaseAmsterdam. Oku kusixelela ukuba irelativity ngokubanzi ilawula ezi zinto ngokusondeleyo, kwaye nayiphi na iyantlukwano esiyibona kude ibangelwa iyantlukwano kwimiba ejikeleze umngxuma omnyama. »

Yile ndlela uRoberto Emparan, uprofesa wefiziksi kunye ne-ICREA kwiZiko leCosmology yeYunivesithi yaseBarcelona, ​​​​uchaza kwi-SMC yaseSpain: "Okwangoku, sinokuthi ukufana phakathi komfanekiso we-M87 * ukusuka kwi-2019 kwaye umfanekiso wangoku uvela kwi-SgrA * ebonisa ukuba, nokuba ungakanani na ubungakanani bomngxuma omnyama, indawo ekufutshane nomngxuma omnyama iyafana kakhulu. Uqwalaselo lwexesha elizayo luya kusixelela ngakumbi malunga neepropathi zemiba ejikeleze umngxuma omnyama, kwaye singakwazi ukuxelela ukuba le nto yinyani yethiyori ka-Einstein, okanye 'umkhohlisi' okanye 'ikopi'.

UGonzalo J. Olmo, unjingalwazi weSebe leTheory Physics kunye ne-IFIC ye-Hybrid Centre yeYunivesithi yaseValencia kunye neCSIC, kunye no-Diego Rubiera-García, umphandi weTalente weSebe leTheory Physics yeYunivesithi yaseComplutense yaseMadrid ihambelana. "Nangona le nto iphindwe kaliwaka ngaphezu kwezinto ezibonwa namhlanje kwi-Milky Way, ukufana kwayo nomngxuma wethu omnyama 'omncinci' kubonisa ukuqheleka kwe-physics echaza ezi zinto", bagxininisa kwi-SMC yaseSpain.

Nangona kunjalo, iziphumo zanamhlanje zinzima kakhulu kune-M87*, nangona iSagittarius A * ikufutshane. Iqela kuye kwafuneka liphuhlise izixhobo ezitsha eziphucukileyo zokuchaza intshukumo yerhasi ejikeleze iSgr A*. Ngelixa i-M87* iyilensi elula kwaye izinzile, phantse yonke imifanekiso ibonakala ifana, i-Sgr A* ayikho.

"Irhasi ekufutshane nomngxuma omnyama ihamba ngesantya esifanayo, phantse ngokukhawuleza njengokukhanya, kufuphi neSagittarius A * kunye ne-M87 *," kuchaza isazinzulu se-EHT uChi-kwan Chan we-Steward Observatory kunye neSebe le-Astronomy kunye neDatha. IYunivesithi yaseArizona, ngelixa igesi ithatha iintsuku ukuya kwiiveki ukujikeleza iM87* enkulu, iSagittarius A* encinci igqibezela i-orbit ngemizuzu."

Oku kuthetha ukuba ukukhanya kunye nepateni yegesi ejikeleze iSagittarius A* itshintsha ngokukhawuleza njengoko i-EHT isebenzisana ukuyiqwalasela: kufana nokuzama ukufumana umfanekiso ocacileyo wentjana ngokukhawuleza ileqa umsila wayoWaqhubeka.

Umfanekiso we-Sgr A * umngxuma omnyama yi-avareji yemifanekiso eyahlukeneyo ekhutshwe liqela, ekugqibeleni ityhila inkwenkwezi enkulu embindini weMilky Way okokuqala.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nemifanekiso ebanjwe umngxuma omnyama kumnyele wethu.


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