Umahluko phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava

umahluko omkhulu phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava

Ekubeni kukho inani elikhulu leentaba-mlilo ezisaqhushumbayo ehlabathini, kusenokwenzeka ukuba enye yazo isagqabhuka. Olunye ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo luhlala lusaziwa ngcono ngobunzulu okanye impembelelo yalo, ngelixa ezinye zisenokungahoywa. Kukwii-volcanic ezaziwayo okanye ezikhankanyiweyo ngakumbi apho impazamo yokubhekisa kwi-magma kunye ne-lava njengento enye ihlala yenziwa, nangona ingekho. Zininzi umahluko phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava esiza kuyibona ngokweenkcukacha.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba yintoni umahluko omkhulu phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava kunye neempawu zabo eziphambili.

yintoni magma

udaka luqukuqela

Masiqale eli nqaku ngokuqonda ukuba yintoni i-magma. IMagma ichazwa ngokulula njengelitye elityhidiweyo elisuka kumbindi woMhlaba. Njengomphumo wokudibanisa, i-magma ngumxube wezinto ezingamanzi, iikhompawundi eziguquguqukayo kunye namasuntswana aqinileyo.

Ukubunjwa kwe-magma ngokwayo kunzima ukuyichaza kuba kuxhomekeke kwizinto ezifana nokushisa, uxinzelelo, iiminerali, njl., Kodwa ngokubanzi, sinokuhlula ezimbini iintlobo ze-magma ngokusekelwe kwi-mineral composition. Makhe sijonge apha:

  • mafic magma: Iqulethe umlinganiselo we-silicates, ngendlela ye-silicates etyebileyo kwintsimbi kunye ne-magnesium, eyenziwa ngokubanzi ngokunyibilika kwe-crust enzima yolwandle. Ngokwenxalenye yalo, olu hlobo lwe-magma lukwabizwa ngokuba yi-basal magma, ebonakala ngokuba nenkangeleko yolwelo ngenxa yomxholo wayo ophantsi we-silica. Ngokuphathelele ubushushu bayo, ikholisa ukuba phakathi kwe-900 ºC kunye ne-1.200 ºC.
  • Iimagmas zeFelsic: Xa kuthelekiswa neyokuqala, ziyi-magmas equkethe i-silica eninzi, ngendlela ye-silicates ecebileyo kwi-sodium kunye ne-potassium. Ngokuqhelekileyo banemvelaphi yabo ekunyibilikeni kwe-continental crust. Zikwabizwa ngokuba yi-acidic magma kwaye, ngenxa yomxholo we-silica ephezulu, zincangathi kwaye azihambi kakuhle. Ngokubhekiselele kwiqondo lobushushu le-felsic magma, lidla ngokuba phakathi kwe-650°C kunye ne-800°C.

Ingabonwa ukuba zombini iindidi ze-magma zineqondo lokushisa eliphezulu. Noko ke, xa i<em>magma ipholile, iyakhazimla, ize idale amatye avuthayo. Ezi zinokuba ziindidi ezimbini:

  • I-Plutonic okanye i-rock intrusive xa i-magma ikhazimla ngaphakathi eMhlabeni.
  • Intaba-mlilo okanye ilitye eliphuphumayo Iyenzeka xa i-magma ikhazimla kumphezulu woMhlaba.

Nangona kunjalo, i-magma ihlala ngaphakathi kwentaba-mlilo kwisakhiwo esibizwa ngokuba yi-magma chamber, engeyonto ngaphandle komqolomba ongaphantsi komhlaba ogcina isixa esikhulu sodaka kwaye yeyona ndawo inzulu yentaba-mlilo. Ngokuphathelele ubunzulu be-magma, kunzima ukuxela, okanye ukuqaphela loo magumbi anzulu e-magma. Nangona kunjalo, amagumbi e-magma afunyenwe kubunzulu phakathi kwe-1 kunye ne-10 yeekhilomitha. Ekugqibeleni, xa i-magma ikwazi ukunyuka ukusuka kwigumbi le-magma ngokusebenzisa i-conduits okanye i-chimneys ze-volcano, into ebizwa ngokuba yi-volcanic volcano eyenzekayo.

yintoni lava

umahluko phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava

Emva kokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-magma, sinokuqhubeka sixoxa ukuba yintoni i-lava. ILava yimagma nje efikelela kuMhlaba kugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo kwaye ivelise into esiyaziyo njengokuqukuqela kodaka. Njengecebo lokugqibela, udaka yinto esiyibona kugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo.

Iimpawu zayo, zombini ukwakheka kodaka kunye nobushushu bodaka luxhomekeke kubuchule be magma, nangona iqondo lobushushu lelava lihluka kulo lonke uhambo lwayo emhlabeni. Ngokukodwa, i-lava ibonakaliswe kwizinto ezimbini ezingekhoyo i-magma: uxinzelelo lwe-atmospheric, olunoxanduva lokukhupha zonke iigesi ezikhoyo kwi-magma, kunye nobushushu be-ambient, obubangela ukuba udaka luphole ngokukhawuleza kwaye luvelise amatye.

Nguwuphi umahluko phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava

ukudubula okukhulu

Ukuba uyenzile le kude, usenokuba uqaphele umahluko phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava. Kwimeko nayiphi na into, apha siza kushwankathela ngokufutshane iiyantlukwano zabo eziphambili ukucacisa amathandabuzo anokwenzeka. Ke xa uzibuza ukuba yi-magma okanye i-lava, gcina oku kulandelayo engqondweni:

  • Indawo: lo ngowona mahluko mkhulu phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava. IMagma ludaka olungaphantsi komphezulu kwaye udaka yimagma enyukayo ifike kumphezulu.
  • Ukuvezwa kwizinto: Ngokukodwa, udaka luchanabeke kwizinto eziqhelekileyo kumphezulu womhlaba, njengoxinzelelo lweatmospheric kunye nobushushu obuphakathi. Ngokwahlukileyo, i-magma engaphantsi komphezulu ayichaphazeli ezi zinto.
  • Ulwakhiwo lwamatye: xa i-magma iphola, iphola ngokucothayo nangokunzulu, ngaloo ndlela idala i-plutonic okanye amatye angenayo. Ngokwahlukileyo koko, xa udaka luphola, luphola ngokukhawuleza nangaphezulu, luvelise amatye entaba-mlilo okanye aphuphumayo.

Icandelo lentaba-mlilo

La ngamalungu enza isakhiwo sentaba-mlilo:

Umngxuma

Kukuvula phezulu apho i-lava, umlotha kunye nazo zonke izinto ze-pyroclastic zixoshwa. Xa sithetha ngezinto zepyroclastic, sithetha zonke amaqhekeza amatye entaba-mlilo, iikristale zeeminerali ezahlukeneyo, njl. Kukho iicrater ezininzi ezinobukhulu obahlukeneyo kunye neemilo, kodwa ezona zixhaphakileyo zingqukuva kwaye zibanzi. Ezinye iintaba-mlilo zinemingxuma engaphezulu kwesinye.

Ezinye iindawo zentaba-mlilo zingunobangela wogqabhuko-dubulo olunamandla. Kukolu gqabhuko-dubulo apho sinokubona ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo olunamandla ngokwaneleyo ukutshabalalisa iinxalenye zezakhiwo zazo okanye ukuziguqula.

Caldera

Yenye yeendawo zentaba-mlilo edla ngokubhidaniswa necrater. Nangona kunjalo, xa intaba-mlilo ikhupha phantse zonke Izinto ezivela kwigumbi layo le-magma ekuqhumeni, ukudakumba okukhulu kuyenziwa. IiCraters zidale ukungazinzi kwiintaba-mlilo eziphilayo ezingenankxaso yolwakhiwo. Ukunqongophala kolwakhiwo phakathi kwentaba-mlilo kubangele ukuba umhlaba udilike ngaphakathi. Ubungakanani bale crater inkulu kakhulu kune crater ngokwayo. Khumbula ukuba ayizizo zonke iintaba-mlilo ezinecaldera.

Ikhoni yenyikima

Yingqokelela yodaka oluqina njengoko luphola. Zonke ii-extravolcanic pyroclasts eziveliswe kugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo okanye ugqabhuko-dubulo ngokuhamba kwexesha nazo ziyinxalenye ye-volcanic cone. Ngoku ka zingaphi irhashalala onayo ebomini bakho, ubukhulu kunye nobukhulu beecones bunokwahluka. Iicones zentaba-mlilo zixhaphakile yi-scoria, i-splash, kunye ne-tuff.

iintanda

Ziyimibhobho eyenzeka kwindawo apho i-magma igxothwa khona. Ziyizinto eziqhekekileyo okanye iifissures ezinemilo emide ebonelela ngokungena komoya ngaphakathi kwaye zenzeke kwiindawo apho i-magma kunye neegesi zangaphakathi zixoshwa phezulu. Kwezinye iimeko ibangela ukuba ikhutshwe ngokuqhushumba ngemibhobho okanye iitshimini, ngelixa kwezinye iimeko ikhutshwa ngoxolo kwiintanda ezinwenwela macala onke nezigubungela imihlaba emikhulu.

Iitshimini kunye needikhi

Iminyango yimibhobho edibanisa i-magma chamber kwi-crater. Kulapho intaba-mlilo idubula khona udaka. Ukongezelela, iigesi ezikhutshwa ngexesha logqabhuko-dubulo zidlula kuloo ndawo. Enye inkalo yogqabhuko-dubulo luxinzelelo. Ukuqwalasela uxinzelelo kunye nomthamo wezinto ezinyukayo kwitshimini, siyabona ukuba iliwa liyakrazulwa luxinzelelo kwaye ligxothwe kwitshimini.

Ngokubhekiselele kwiidikesi, ziyi-igneous okanye i-magmatic formations enemilo ye-tubular. Zidlula kumaleko akufutshane amatye zize ziqine njengoko ubushushu buhla. Ezi dikes zenziwa xa i-magma iphakama kwiintanda ezintsha okanye kwiintanda ukuhamba ngeendlela ezisematyeni. Dlula kwi-sedimentary, metamorphic, kunye namatye e-plutonic endleleni.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokwahlukana okuphambili phakathi kwe-magma kunye ne-lava.


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