Ulwandle lwaseCortez

Namhlanje sihamba siye eMelika siye kwiGulf of California, ekwabizwa ngegama lika Ulwandle lwaseCortez. Ngumzimba omxinwa wamanzi okhoyo eMexico phakathi kwepeninsula yaseBaja California kunye namazwe aseMexico aseSonora naseSinaloa. Olu lwandle luye lwaduma kakhulu kuba lunobutyebi bendalo kunye neziqithi ezininzi ezineendawo ezikhuselweyo ezibizwa ngokuba ziiNdawo zeLifa leMveli le-UNESCO ngo-2005.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuba likuxelele zonke iimpawu, ukubunjwa, izityalo nezisongelo zoLwandle lwaseCortez.

Iimpawu eziphambili

imeko yolwandle lokusika

Lulwandle olusecaleni olufumaneka kuLwandlekazi lwePasifiki. Ngokukodwa emantla ntshona kunxweme lwaseMexico. Inokongezwa malunga ne malunga ne-160,000-177,000 km2 kunye nomthamo wamanzi malunga ne-145,000 km3. Yaziwa ngokuba namanzi amahle. Kwaye kubonakala ngathi yindawo yendalo ngokuthe ngqo enamanzi ashushu, efanelekileyo yokuhlamba kunye neethoni entle eblue. Oku kuyenza ibe lolona lolwandle lufunwa kakhulu kuyo yonke le ndawo. Ingathi yiparadesi yendalo ngokupheleleyo.

Kummandla obanzi kuLwandle lwaseCortez ububanzi obumalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-241, ngelixa kweyona ndawo imxinwa imalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-48 kuphela. Inxalenye esemantla yeyona isezantsi, nangona ezinye iindawo zokudakumba ziye zafunyanwa ezinokufikelela kwiimitha ezingama-3.000 818 ubunzulu. Ubunzulu obuphakathi kolwandle buncinci, ziimitha eziyi-XNUMX kuphela. Nangona kunjalo, ayisiyantlukwano ethintela uphuhliso lwezinto ezahlukeneyo eziphilayo ubukhulu becala.

Ubushushu kunye netyuwa

Kuba inamanzi afudumeleyo, ehlotyeni inokufikelela kumaqondo obushushu angama-24 degrees. La manzi alungele ukuhlamba kunye nabo bonke abakhenkethi abatyelela le mimandla ehlotyeni. Ngokuchaseneyo, Ngexesha lasebusika iqondo lobushushu elwandle lehla liye kufikelela kwi-9 degrees. Isizathu soluhlu lwamaqondo obushushu amakhulu phakathi kwehlobo nobusika bubunzulu obunzulu. Kuba lulwandle olungenamanzi okanye ubunzulu obuninzi, luchaphazeleka ngakumbi kukutshintsha kwamaqondo obushushu emoyeni. Kuba ayinamanzi amaninzi, ixesha lokuncitshiswa liyancipha kwaye la manqanaba amakhulu obushushu anokujongwa phakathi kwexesha elinye nelinye.

Kumanzi akufutshane nolwandle oluvulekileyo, ingadlula kumaqondo obushushu angama-24 degrees. Ityuwa ikwahluka kakhulu kunxweme lonke. Kuba kukho isiphumo sokuhamba kwamanzi amtyuba asezantsi kwindawo yonxweme olusentshona apho kukho ityuwa ephezulu. Ngokungafaniyo nokwenzekayo nolunye ulwandle lwetropiki, amanzi anetyuwa encinci kwaye uluhlu olubanzi kakhulu lwamaza luboniwe. Amaza anefuthe kuxhomekeka kwindawo esikuyo kunye nomjikelo wenyanga. Kwinxalenye esemantla yoLwandle lwaseCortez inqanaba lamanzi lenyuswe laya kutsho kwi-9 yeemitha ngenxa yamaza.

Umlambo iColorado wenza i-delta ebanzi kwicandelo lokugqibela kwaye ingena kuLwandle lwaseCortez. Kunokuthiwa olu lwandle lunoMlambo iColorado njengowona mjelo uphambili kuwo. Olunye lweempawu ezenze ukuba olu lwandle ludume kangaka kukuba kukho iziqithi ezingama-922 ngaphakathi kulo, nangona uninzi lwazo lungahlali bantu. Nangona kunjalo, banenani elikhulu leentyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana ezenza ukuba ibe yindawo etyebileyo kwindalo.

Ukusekwa koLwandle lwaseCortez

Iziqithi zolwandle

Kukho iingcinga ezininzi ezinemvelaphi yoLwandle lwaseCortez. Kuba ayinakwaziwa ngokuqinisekileyo ngokupheleleyo, iyaziwa ukuba lulwandle oluncinci. Ifom yayo yangoku yafunyanwa ngexesha le- Miocene Mva. Oko kukuthi, kuyenzeka malunga ne-4-6 yezigidi zeminyaka. Ezinye zeethiyori ezingqina imvelaphi yolwandle zibonisa ukuguqulwa kweakhawunti amaxesha amaninzi. Emva kokulungiswa okuninzi, kunokwenziwa ngeenkqubo ezithile zetectonic.

Iinkqubo zejoloji ezakhokelela ekubunjweni kolwandle zenzeka malunga neminyaka engama-60 yezigidi eyadlulayo. Kungelo xesha apho iitectonic plates zaseMntla Melika kunye nePacific zazibekwe kwipleyiti eyayilahlekile namhlanje. Le mbasa ifumana igama likaFarallón. Ekuqaleni kwexesha leMesozoic, eli cwecwe laziwa ngegama likaFarallon laqala inkqubo yokuthimba. Kwaye kukuba yaqala ukuntywila phantsi komda osentshona we-North American plate kwaye inegalelo ekubunjweni kweentaba kunye neentaba-mlilo. Yilapho uninzi lweziqithi ezikuLwandle lwaseCortez zazalelwa khona.

Iintlobo ngeentlobo zoLwandle lwaseCortez

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, lulwandle olunobutyebi obuninzi bezinto ezahlukeneyo. Ngaphandle kokuba incinci ngobukhulu kwaye inendawo enye yokungena emanzini, lolunye lolwandle olufundwayo emhlabeni. Kwaye kwathiwa igama njenge-aquarium yomhlaba »ngenxa yobutyebi obukhulu bezityalo nezilwanyana. Kuqikelelwa ukuba Igcina malunga ne-900 yeentlanzi, ezingama-90 zazo zihlala zikhona, ngaphezulu kwe-170 yeentlobo zeentaka zaselwandle kwaye phantse isinye kwisithathu kuzo zonke iintlobo zezilwanyana zaselwandle emhlabeni. Ukongeza koku, sinokuthi kukho malunga ne-5 iintlobo zofudo ezihlalela okanye zikhangele ukutya kunxweme lwayo.

Oku kuyenza ulwandle ithathwa njengeyona inkulu kubutyebi bezinto eziphilayo. Ungafumana i-vaquitas zolwandle, ufudo olubuyela umva, ufudo oluhlaza, iskwidi esikhulu, isardadi, ookrebe abanjengomnenga, amahashe asePasifiki, iitotoabas, iir ranisapos, iifudo zaselwandle zomnquma, iintlanzi zaseCalifornia kunye neentlanzi ezinamaphiko, phakathi kwezinye izilwanyana.

Ngokubhekisele kwiintyatyambo, ikwisityebi kakhulu. Ineentyatyambo ezizodwa phantsi komphezulu wamanzi. Zininzi iingqaqa zekorale, iplankton kunye nolwelwe olukhulu. Kuqikelelwa ukuba bangamakhaya kwiintlobo ezingama-62 ze-algae ezincinci kunye ne-626 iintlobo ze-algae macroscopic. Enye yeendawo ezintle kakhulu ibonakala kummandla wonxweme. Kwaye kungenxa yokuba iyayitshintsha imeko kwimeko eyahlukileyo enqabileyo phakathi kohlaza ngakumbi kunye neentlango kunye nezityalo zemangrove ezenziwe ngesanti netyuwa, ikakhulu. Zimalunga noko ezinye iintlobo ze-696 zezityalo zemithambo enayo kwindalo yendalo apho.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga noLwandle lwaseCortez.


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