Umahluko wokukhanya

uphazamiso

Ihlabathi le-physics kunye neefoto lichaphazeleka kwimeko yokukhanya eyaziwa njenge ukukhanya kokukhanya. Zininzi iilensi zekhamera ezinobungcali eziyilelwe ukubonelela ngobukhali obuhle kakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, nokuba ikumgangatho olungileyo kakhulu, abanakho ukubaleka kule meko yokukhanya.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni umahluko wokukhanya kunye neempawu zawo kunye nokubaluleka kwawo.

Yintoni umahluko wokukhanya

ukukhanya kokukhanya kokukhanya

Xa amaza okukhanya edlula kwimingxuma emincinane aze ajikeleze imiqobo okanye imiphetho ebukhali, oko kubizwa ngokuba kukuphambuka kokukhanya kuveliswa. Ukuba into ayisebenzi kwaye ilele phakathi komthombo wenqaku lokukhanya kunye nescreen, umda phakathi Imimandla enombala kunye neqaqanjisiweyo kwiscreen ayizukuchazwa. Ingabonwa njengenxalenye yemimandla enemibala kwaye ikhanyisile ibonisa inani elincinci lokukhanya elijikwe laya kwimimandla enomthunzi.

Kunokuthiwa ukusasazeka kokukhanya yinto eyenzekayo xa amaza enza ukukhanya edlula kumngxuma omxinwa. Xa oku kusenzeka, amaza okukhanya ngokuthe ngcembe ayakheka kwaye awusenangqangi phambili. Nanini na xa sithetha ngokukhanya kufuneka sazi ukuba yintoni ukukhanya kwesibane. Lo msebe wokukhanya awuyonto ngaphandle kokuba "ngumjelo" apho ukukhanya kudlula emoyeni. Kule meko, xa idlula emngxunyeni, amaza alula avulekileyo njengakwizibane eziphambili zemoto ezinzulwini zobusuku kuba umngxuma ngulo usebenza njengesikhanyisi esitsha sokukhanya.

Umahluko wokukhanya usetyenziswa kwiikhamera ukunyanzela ukukhanya ngomngxunya omncinci kakhulu. Oku kusetyenziselwa ukukhetha inani lokukhanya esiza kulisebenzisa ukuthatha ifoto.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ukukhanya ukukhanya

Umahluko wokukhanya ubangela ukuba ungagxili kwindawo echanekileyo. Le nto ibangela ukuba ichithakale, yenze oko kwaziwa njenge Idisk yomoya. Le diski ayikho enye into ngaphandle kokubonakaliswa kokukhanya kwesibane sokukhanya kunye namaza aqikelelwe kwinqwelomoya. Kwimeko yokufota, inqwelomoya inzwa yekhamera.

Idiski ye-Airy yile nto ifotwayo ifuna ukuseka ibhalansi. Uzama ukuthwebula umfanekiso ngobunzulu bentsimi ukuze yonke into ibonakale kakuhle kugxilwe. Ndiyabulela kwimeko yokukhanya kokukhanya, imbonakalo yekhamera inokuvalwa ukugxila ngokufanelekileyo kwizinto ezifotwe. Kuza inqaku apho ukuvala uvalo kuxa kukho ilahleko ngokubanzi yokuba bukhali. Ngesi sizathu, kubalulekile ukwazi ukuba imeko yokusasazeka kokukhanya isebenza njani ukuba sifuna ukwandisa iifoto.

Le nto ikwasetyenziswa kwintengiso ukuze ikwazi ukuvelisa ukubonwa okutsala umdla wamehlo. Igama elithi diffraction livela kwisiLatin diffractus, elithetha ukuba lophukile. Kwenzeka ikakhulu kuba isilingi siyakwazi ukujikeleza umqobo ekusasazeni kwayo, sishenxisa kwindlela yokuziphatha kwemitha ye-rectilinear. Kufuneka iqatshelwe ukuba iziphumo eziphambili zokukhanya kokukhanya zihlala zincinci.

Into yokuphazamiseka inokubonwa ngeliso lenyama ngokuba nomthombo wokukhanya obeka iminwe emibini kumgama weesentimitha ezilishumi ukusuka kwiliso elinye usenza indawo encinci phakathi kweminwe. Kulapha apho sinokubona uthotho lwemigca emnyama kunye nokunye ukukhanya. Imigca enokubonwa ikakhulu ibangelwa yinto eyaziwa ngokuba yi ukuphazamiseka kokukhanya okwakhayo nokonakalisayo. Oku kungenelela kudlula kwiminwe ukwenza lo mphumo.

Umahluko wokukhanya kunye nomgaqo weHuygens

Umahluko ngokwasemzimbeni

Isizathu sokwenzeka kuphazamiseko asicacanga gca. Inzululwazi UChristian Huygens wanika ingcaciso ngale nto. Inkcazo isekwe kwimitha ye-electromagnetic kunye ne-dynamics yayo xa unyulo kwakhona kumazibuthe aphezulu ushiya umthombo apho ukhutshwa khona kwaye uyanda njengoko uhamba. Ukwandiswa kwayo kwenziwa kumgca othe nkqo ngokungathi kugubungela umphezulu wokulinda okwandayo ngokuqhubekayo. Indawo yonke yokwanda kokukhanya iyanda ngokulingana nesikwere somgama ohamba ngemitha.

Sijonga ukuba amandla ombane anokusasazeka ukusuka kumthombo wenqaku kumaza eenqwelomoya. Kule meko, asisebenzisi kuphela umthetho wesikwere oguqulweyo kumthombo wamandla kodwa kufuneka sisebenzise nakweyiphi na indawo kwisilingi. Kungoko kunokuthiwa amaza athathelwa ingqalelo zenziwe ngokuqhubekayo ukusuka kuwo onke amanqaku kwinqwelomoya kwaye zisasazwa kuwo onke amacala. Ukuba sinciphisa indawo apho sivumela ukukhanya kuphume khona, indawo apho ukukhanya kwesibane esihamba kuyo kuya kuncitshiswa.

Lo mgaqo we-Huygens wapapashwa ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-300 eyadlulayo kwaye indlela entsha icetywayo yokwazi ukwanda kokukhanya njengoko sikwaziyo namhlanje. Ngeli xesha kwakuthathelwa ingqalelo ukuba ukukhanya kuhamba njengamaza kuhlobo oluthile lwento eyintsomi ebizwa ngokuba yi-ether kwaye kucingelwa ukuba kugcwalise indawo yonke. Inxalenye nganye ye-ether eshukuma yabonwa njengemvelaphi yamaza amatsha. Amaza okujikeleza okukhanya kokuqala kokukhanya avela kumthombo wenqaku kwaye ngokuyinxenye asithwe siscreen se-S.

Ukuhamba kwamaza okukhanya kuchazwa ngesantya esikwiikhowuni ethintela ukuvulwa kwescreen. Ukuvulwa kwescreen kuyaziwa njengomphezulu apho ukukhanya kunokubaleka khona. Lo mgaqo usetyenziselwa ukwamkelwa kwemithetho yokutsalwa kwamaza eenqwelomoya. Umgaqo kaHuygens uhambelana i-geometry ebonakalayo kwaye isebenza kumaza amade amancinci kakhulu. Kwelinye icala, asinakho ukuyisebenzisa ukuchaza zonke izinto ezikhoyo kumaza okukhanya. Umzekelo, ayisebenzisi ukucacisa ukuphambuka kwamaza ukusuka kulwandiso lwemitha yokukhanya xa ugqitha emphethweni wento okanye kwiindawo ezincinci ezivulekileyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokukhanya kokukhanya.


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