yintoni intaba

yintoni intaba

Sikuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga nokuba yintoni intaba, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubunjwa. Fumana konke malunga nayo apha.

yintoni ichwebakazi

Yintoni ichwebakazi

Sikuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga nokuba yintoni i-archipelago kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

yintoni lava

yintoni lava

Sikuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga nokuba yintoni i-lava, iimpawu zayo kunye nokungafani kunye ne-magma.

Amatye eMetamorphic

Amatye eMetamorphic

Sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga namatye e-metamorphic kunye neempawu zawo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Intaba-mlilo iPopocatepetl

Intaba-mlilo iPopocatepetl

Kweli nqaku uya kufumana lonke ulwazi oludingayo malunga nentaba-mlilo yasePopocatépetl kunye neempawu zayo.

indawo ye-crater ye-chicxulub

Chicxulub Crater

Sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neChicxulub crater kunye nezinto ezifunyenweyo. Funda ngakumbi apha.

yintoni na iimpawu iliwa

yintoni iliwa

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela ukuba yintoni iliwa kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

imihlaba enqabileyo

Umhlaba onqabileyo

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela ukuba yiyiphi imihlaba enqabileyo, iimpawu zabo kunye nokubaluleka kwazo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha

iliwa lezigebenga tenerife

I-Cliff yeZigebenga

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nelitye laseLos Gigantes kunye neempawu zalo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

ntaba saint helena

INtaba iSanta Helena

Sikuxelela ngembali, imvelaphi kunye nogqabhuko-dubulo lweNtaba iSanta Helena. Funda ngakumbi ngale ntaba-mlilo isebenzayo.

umlambo eThailand

UMlambo iMekong

Sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha zonke iimpawu zoMlambo iMekong. Funda ngakumbi malunga neyona milambo idumileyo eThailand.

ukukhwela

UMonte Cervino

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neNtaba iMatterhorn kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

intaba denali

INtaba iDenali

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neNtaba iDenali kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

amafu entaba-mlilo

amafu entaba-mlilo

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga namafu entaba-mlilo kunye neempawu zawo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha

intaba-mlilo etna

iintaba-mlilo eItali

Sichaza ngokweenkcukacha ukuba zeziphi ezona ntaba-mlilo zibalulekileyo eItali ngokobukhulu bazo kunye nomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo. Funda ngakumbi apha.

iintaba-mlilo eiceland

Iintaba-mlilo eIceland

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neentaba-mlilo e-Iceland kunye neempawu zazo.

pacific ring yomlilo

Isandi somlilo

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga neNdandatho yoMlilo kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Intaba-mlilo yemerapi

INtaba iMerapi

Sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neNtaba iMerapi kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

amatye magnetic

Amatye amagnetic

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga namatye magnetic kunye neempawu zabo. Funda ngakumbi apha.

iintlobo zeentaba-mlilo ezikhoyo

Iindidi zeentaba-mlilo

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeentaba-mlilo ezikhoyo kunye nokuqhuma kwazo.

diagenesis ematyeni

I-Diagenesis

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga ne-diagenesis, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubunjwa.

iisinki kwindalo

iisinkhole

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga ne-sinkholes kunye neempawu zabo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

iindonga zemilambo

Iibhanki

Sikuxelela yonke into oyifunayo malunga neebhanki, iimpawu zabo kunye nezityalo ezinxulumene nazo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

amalungu rock

Amalungu

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga ne-cleats kunye neempawu zabo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

i-mender

Meander

Kweli nqaku sikubonisa ukuba yintoni i-meander kunye nokuba zeziphi iimpawu kunye nokwakheka kwayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

iifosili opalized

iifosili opalized

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neefosili opalized kunye nokubaluleka kwazo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

imineral rainbow curazo

Iquartz yomnyama

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu ze-quartz ye-rainbow kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

ipinki halite

Halite epinki

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-pink halite kunye neempawu zayo. Yazi ngokunzulu yonke into malunga nale minerali.

iintlobo zekartz

Iindidi zekartz

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neentlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-quartz ezikhoyo kunye neempawu zazo.

ikhephu

Iintaba-mlilo eSpain

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neentaba-mlilo ezahlukeneyo eSpain kunye neempawu zazo.

yima zama

I-tatras yentaba

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi ngeNtaba yeTatras kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

IiHimalaya

Iintaba

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neentaba kunye neempawu zazo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

igeology yakudala

IPaleozoic

Kule posi yonke into enxulumene nePaleozoic kunye neempawu zayo zichaziwe ngokweenkcukacha. Funda ngakumbi ngeli nqanaba.

ugqabhuko-dubulo

Njani iintaba-mlilo

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ngokweenkcukacha ukuba zenziwa njani na iintaba-mlilo, iintlobo zeentaba-mlilo kunye neendawo zazo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

amanzi

Amanzi amaninzi

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nokuba zeziphi iindawo zamanzi kunye neempawu zawo.

ikhephu laseSwitzerland

IiAlps zaseSwitzerland

Sikuxelela yonke into odinga ukuyazi malunga neeSwiss Alps kwaye kutheni iyenye yeentaba ezaziwayo emhlabeni.

intaba-mlilo ephezulu ehlabathini

UMauna Kea

Sichaza yonke into malunga nentaba-mlilo iMauna Kea kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Imbali yomhlaba

Imbali yoMhlaba

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi ngembali yoMhlaba kunye nemvelaphi yawo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Ukuqhuma kwe-etna

Intaba mlilo

Sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha zonke iimpawu, ukuqhuma kunye nomdla wentaba-mlilo i-Etna. Yazi eyona volcano isebenzayo eYurophu ngokunzulu.

stromatolites ukubaluleka

IiStromatolites

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-stromatolites kunye neempawu zazo. Funda ngakumbi malunga nolu lwakhiwo lwerwala.

San andres ziyinyikima

Iphutha leSan Andrés

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga nephutha leSan Andrés kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Umlambo waseCongo

IRío Kongo

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga noMlambo iCongo kunye neempawu zawo. Funda nzulu ngalo mlambo apha.

yintoni iliwa

Yintoni iliwa

Kule nqaku sikuxelela ukuba yintoni iliwa, luyintoni ubunjani kunye neempawu zalo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

indawo yengonyama

Inxweme yengonyama

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neGulf of Lion kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

intaba-mlilo yelitye eliphezulu

Intaba-mlilo yaseYellowstone

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga nentaba-mlilo yaseYellowstone kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

amaza enyikima

Yintoni inyikima

Kule nqaku sikuxelela ukuba yintoni inyikima, yintoni unobangela kunye neziphumo zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

iintaba zasecaucasus

Iintaba zeCaucasus

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neeNtaba zeCaucasus kunye neempawu zazo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

isitya sehydroographic se-ebro

Intlambo ye-Ebro

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-Ebro Valley, i-geology kunye nokubunjwa kwayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

yintoni isiqithi

Yintoni isiqithi

Sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha ukuba yintoni isiqithi, ukuba senziwe njani kwaye zeziphi iintlobo kunye neempawu esinazo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

uluhlu lweentaba

Inkqubo yeBetic

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga nenkqubo yeBetic kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha

ndwendwela umwonyo omkhulu

Umwonyo waseColorado

Yazi ngokunzulu yonke into oyifunayo malunga neColorado Canyon. Funda ngalo mmangaliso wendalo.

IAltai massif idume ngokuma komhlaba

UAltai Massif

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neAltai massif. Funda ngakumbi malunga nenye yezona ndawo zinomlingo emhlabeni.

Imikhenkce esezintabeni

Ialps zaseScandinavia

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neAlps zaseScandinavia kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Ungcoliseko lomlambo owahlula iLondon

Umlambo iThames

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi ngoMlambo iThames kunye nokubaluleka kwawo. Funda okungakumbi ngalo mlambo udumileyo.

ipetrogenesis

I-Petrogenesis

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga ne-petrogenesis kunye nokubaluleka kwayo. Funda nzulu malunga nokwakheka komhlaba apha.

uluhlu lweentaba zeArctic

Uluhlu lweentaba zeArctic

Yazi kubunzulu beempawu, ijiology kunye nokubaluleka koluhlu lweentaba zeArctic. Apha sikuxelela yonke into ngokweenkcukacha.

Ukwakhiwa kwamatye e-sedimentary

Sedimentology

Sikuxelela ukubaluleka kwe-sedimentology njengesebe le-geology. Wazi nzulu lo mbandela.

mlilo ngokupheleleyo

Icandelo lentaba-mlilo

Sichaza ngokweenkcukacha icandelo ngalinye lentaba-mlilo kunye nemisebenzi yayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

petrology kunye namatye

UPetrology

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga petrology kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Indawo yeepyrenees

Iipyrenees

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga nePyrenees kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngezi ntaba.

iGulf yaseCalifornia

KwiGulf yaseCalifornia

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neGulf of California, iimpawu zayo kunye nezinto eziphilayo. Funda ngako konke apha.

ikhephu kunye nomkhenkce

Mont Blanc

Kweli nqaku sikubonisa yonke into ekufuneka uyazi ngeMont Blanc kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Amatye anqabileyo

Amatye axabisekileyo

Sikuxelela zonke iimpawu kunye neempawu zamatye anqabileyo. Yazi nzulu ukuba lixabiso lini na kwaye lenzelwe ntoni.

imibala yentaba

Vinicunca

Sikuxelela yonke into oyifunayo malunga nentaba yaseVinicunca eyaziwa njengentaba yemibala emi-7. Funda nzulu apha.

Umkhenkce

Mount pheka

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neNtaba Cook kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

igubu

IDrumlin

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga negubu kunye noqeqesho lwakhe. Funda ukuba yenziwe njani le geology yomkhenkce.

Iimpawu zamatye angenanto

Amatye anqabileyo

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi ngamatye angenanto kunye nokwenziwa kwawo. Funda kabanzi malunga nokuhlelwa kwamatye.

iikali

Imephu yendawo

Sikuxelela zonke iimpawu kunye nezinto zemephu yendawo. Funda ngakumbi malunga nokusetyenziswa kwayo apha.

amatye eentlenga

Amatye e-sedimentary

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neempawu kunye nemvelaphi yamatye e-sedimentary. Funda nzulu apha.

Umaleko woMhlaba

Umgangatho wobume bomhlaba

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga ne-gradient geadimal kunye nokubaluleka kwayo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Inkcazo

Sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-lithology, isebe le-geology. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

wonke umhlaba kunye

Pangea

Sikuxelela yonke into odinga ukuyazi malunga neyona ndawo ibalaseleyo ebizwa ngokuba yiPangea. Funda ngakumbi malunga nokuvela kweplanethi yethu.

orthophoto kunye nokusetyenziswa

Orthophoto

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi nge-orthophoto kunye neempawu zayo eziphambili. Yazi ukuba luncedo kwezi foto zasemoyeni.

oonobangela bokhukuliseko lwaselwandle

Ukhukuliseko lwaselwandle

Sikuxelela yonke into odinga ukuyazi malunga nokhukuliseko lwaselwandle, ukuba lwenziwa njani kunye neziphumo zalo kuncedo lonxweme.

amaza enyikima

Amaza enyikima

Sikuxelela zonke iimpawu, imvelaphi kunye neentlobo zamaza enyikima akhoyo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

ulwakhiwo lwamatye

Ingozi yendawo

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nokuma komhlaba kunye neempawu zawo. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

ukunyuka kwentaba

K2

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu, ukwakheka, iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zeNtaba iK2. Funda ngakumbi ngale ntaba.

zeHimalaya

Everest

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neempawu, ukubunjwa, imozulu, iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana ze-Everest.

Umjikelo werwala

Umjikelo weLiwa

Sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nomjikelo wedwala kunye neempawu zayo. Funda ngayo apha.

IVesubio mont

IVesubio mont

Sikuxelela zonke iimpawu, ukwakheka kunye nokuqhuma kweentaba-mlilo iVesuvius, enye yezona ziyingozi.

Ulwandle lweCaribbean

ULwandle lweCaribbean

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu, i-geology kunye nokwakhiwa koLwandle lweCaribbean. Funda ngakumbi ngale ndawo yasezulwini.

Intlango yeSahara

Intlango yeSahara

Kule nqaku sikubonisa zonke iimpawu, iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zentlango yaseSahara. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Unobumba

Kule nqaku sikuxelela zonke iimpawu, imvelaphi, i-geology, i-flora kunye nezilwanyana ze-Alps. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

intaba-mlilo yetambora kunye ne-caldera yayo

Intaba-mlilo yaseTambora

Kule nqaku siza kukubonisa iimpawu, ukubunjwa kunye nokuqhuma kweTambora volcano. Funda kabanzi malunga nenye yeentaba-mlilo ezidumileyo.

Mauna loa

Mauna loa

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu, ukubunjwa kunye nokuqhuma kwe-Mauna Loa volcano. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

ICrystallography

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu kunye neendawo zokufunda nge-crystallography. Funda ngakumbi malunga neli sebe lesayensi.

Iitshimini ze Fairy

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu kunye nemvelaphi yetshimini yeentsomi. Yazi yonke into malunga nokuma komhlaba.

I-Kilimanjaro

Sikuxelela zonke iimpawu, ukubunjwa kunye nokuqhuma kweKilimanjaro. Funda nzulu ngeyona volcano idumileyo eAfrika.

UNaranjo de Bulnes

Sikuxelela zonke iimpawu, ijiology kunye nokubaluleka kweNaranjo de Bulnes. Funda ngakumbi ngale nto iphakamileyo apha.

uzinzo kwithambeka

Amathambeka

Kule posi sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha ukuba zithini izithambeka kwaye zeziphi iimpawu zazo. Funda ngakumbi malunga nejografi yomhlaba.

Inkqubo yesimo seism

Kule nqaku sikubonisa indlela iinyikima ezilinganiswa ngayo kunye nokuba yintoni isismogram. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Ikhonkco leKerch

Sikuxelela zonke iimpawu kunye nokubaluleka komhlaba kunye nesicwangciso seKerch Strait. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Intaba yeFuji

INtaba iFuji ithathwa njenge-volcano esebenzayo kwaye yenye yezona ndawo zibalulekileyo kubakhenkethi eJapan. Yazi yonke apha.

Iindidi zokuqhuma

Iindidi zokuqhuma

Sichaza zonke iimpawu kunye neentlobo zokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo. Funda kabanzi malunga neentaba-mlilo kunye nokuqhuma.

Ulwandle lwamafu eTyide Volcano

Intaba mlilo

Kule posi siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu, ukuyilwa, ukwazi kunye nokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo iTeide. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

UMlambo iMississippi

UMlambo iMississippi

Kule posi sikubonisa zonke iimpawu, ukubunjwa, iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zoMlambo iMississippi. Funda okungakumbi ngalo mlambo udumileyo.

Ulwakhiwo lobume bomhlaba

Ulwakhiwo lobume bomhlaba

Sikuxelela iimpawu kunye nokubaluleka kwe-geology yolwakhiwo ekufundweni kwamacwecwe eteknoloji. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Iimpawu zembali yokwakheka komhlaba

Imbali yokwakheka komhlaba

Sichaza yonke into malunga nembali yokwakheka komhlaba kunye nokubaluleka kwayo kwinqanaba lesayensi. Funda ngakumbi malunga neli sebe apha.

Isimbiwa

Isimbiwa

Kule nqaku sikufundisa yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-mineralogy. Ngena apha ukuze ufunde okungakumbi ngale nzululwazi.

Ukubeka amatye

Ubume beGeochronology

Sichaza ngokweenkcukacha zonke izinto ekufuneka uzazile malunga ne-geochronology. Ngena apha ukuze ufunde okungakumbi ngomhlaba wethu.

Neogene yantlukwano

Ixesha leNeogene

Kule posi siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu, ijiology, imozulu, iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zexesha leNeogene. Funda ngakumbi malunga neli nqanaba lejoloji.

Ukuphela kweentlobo

Paleocene

Kule posi sichaza yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nePaleocene. Ngena apha ukuze ufunde okungakumbi malunga neli xesha lobume bomhlaba.

Ipleistocene

Ipleistocene

IPleistocene lulwahlulo lwejoloji kwisithuba sexesha loqeqesho. Ngena apha ukwazi lonke ulwazi malunga nalo.

Stratigraphy

Yintoni stratigraphy

Siza kukuxelela ukuba yeyiphi i-stratigraphy njengesebe le-geology. Ngenisa le posi ukuze wazi ukuba iluncedo kangakanani le sayensi.

Imagnethi yomhlaba

Geomagnetism

Kule posi sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha ukuba yintoni i-geomagnetism kunye nento eyenzayo. Ngena apha ukuze ufunde okungakumbi ngayo.

Indaleko yoMhlaba

Ubungowokuma komhlaba

Kule nqaku sikufundisa yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neendawo ze-geological. Ngena apha ukuze ufunde okungakumbi ngayo.

Umzekelo weGlacier

Umzekelo weGlacier

Kule posi sikuxelela ukuba yeyiphi imodeli yomkhenkce kunye nokuba yeyiphi imiphumo enayo ekuguqulweni kwembonakalo yomhlaba. Funda ngakumbi ngayo apha.

Galena izimbiwa

Konke malunga ne-mineral galena

Kule posi sikuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga ne-galena yezimbiwa. Funda malunga nokusetyenziswa kwayo, iimpawu kunye nemvelaphi apha.

Amatanki afakwe umbane

Yintoni indlwane

Sikufundisa ukuba yeyiphi indawo yokuhlala kuyo i-geology. Ngale posi unokufumana ulwazi malunga nale datha inika le datha.

Inqwelomoya yeBenioff

Inqwelomoya yeBenioff

Funda kweli nqaku ukuba yintoni inqwelomoya yeBenioff kwaye kubaluleke kangakanani ukuqonda imisebenzi yenyikima.

Iimpawu zeencopho eziphakamileyo

Iintaba zeAndes

Kweli nqaku sichaza ezona mpawu ziphambili zoluhlu lweentaba zeAndes, kunye nemvelaphi yazo, izityalo nezilwanyana.

induli yamangqina

Induli yamaNgqina

Sikufundisa ukuba yintoni induli yengqina kwijoloji. Funda malunga nokwakheka kwejografi okunomdla kwiplanethi yethu.

Ukuhamba koMlambo iTigris

Umlambo iTigris

Kule posi siza kukuxelela iimpawu zoMlambo iTigris. Funda apha ngokubaluleka kwalo mlambo, iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana. Sukuphoswa yiyo!

IPoljé de Zafarraya

Yintoni ipoljé

Sikuxelela ukuba yintoni ipoljé kwaye ibaluleke kangakanani ebantwini nakwindawo yomhlaba. Funda ngayo apha.

Iimpawu zencam

Yintoni ikapa

Kweli nqaku sikuxelela ukuba yintoni ikapa kwaye ibaluleke kangakanani ngokubhekiselele kwimisinga yolwandle kunye nokuhamba. Funda ngayo apha.

Yintoni unikelo

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nento eyiyo kwaye kubaluleke kangakanani. Funda ngayo apha.

Ukwakheka kweJografi kunamagama ahlukeneyo ngokuxhomekeke kwi-morphology kunye nemvelaphi yabo.  Namhlanje siza kuthetha malunga nendawo yemvelaphi esecaleni eyaziwa njengeyombolo.  Yindawo ebonakalayo eyenza ukudibana komhlaba phakathi kwesiqithi nomhlaba, ilitye kude nomhlaba, phakathi kweziqithi ezibini, okanye phakathi kwamatye amabini amakhulu.  Siyayazi eminye imizekelo yeombolo ezifana ne-sandy isthmus ejoyina iDwala laseGibraltar kunye nomhlaba omkhulu.  Kule nqaku siza kuthetha malunga neempawu zedombolo kunye nendlela eyakhiwe ngayo.  Ngokubanzi Olu lwakhiwo lwejoloji lwenzeka kuba iziqithi zivelisa ukuphazamiseka ekuhambeni kwamaza.  Ngokwesiqhelo, la mqobo wamaza ubeka isanti kunye namatye kwindawo apho aqhekeza khona.  Njengokuba umphakamo wolwandle unyuka, inegalelo kwintlenga yomhlaba yazo zonke izinto ezifakwe ngamaza.  Ezi zixhobo ziye zatyhalwa phezulu zenza umendo ofana nalowo siwubona kwimeko yeChesil Beach.  Le tombolo iqhagamshela i-Isle yasePortland kunye ne-Dorset inika ingxelo ngamatye athe tyaba kunxweme.  Makhe sihlalutye ingcwaba leLiwa laseGibraltar.  Eli litye likho kumzantsi-ntshona weYurophu kwi-Iberia Peninsula.  Ayikho enye into ngaphandle kwepremontle yelitye lekalika enobude obuziimitha ezingama-426.  Eli litye liyaziwa ngokusingathwa macaque ezingama-250, iinkawu zokugqibela endle eYurophu.  Inayo inethiwekhi ye-labyrinthine yeetonela, kunye nee-macaque, ezenza ukuba ibe ngumtsalane kubakhenkethi unyaka wonke.  Eli liwa lithathwa njengendawo yokugcina indawo.  Amangcwaba akwabizwa ngokuba ziziqithi ezibotshiweyo kuba kubonakala ngathi khange zahlulwe ngokupheleleyo kunxweme.  Olu lwakhiwo lunokubonakala ngathi lodwa okanye lufunyenwe ngokwamaqela.  Xa siyifumana ingamaqela, iintonga zesanti zenza indawo ebiyelweyo ngokungathi yichweba elikufutshane nonxweme.  Ezi lagons zezokwexeshana kuba ngokuqinisekileyo ziya kugcwalisa intlenga ngokuhamba kwexesha.  Yenzeka njani i-tombolo? Le drift littoral yenzeka njani xa amaza etyhala intlenge.  Le ntlenga inokwenziwa sisanti, intlenga kunye nodongwe.  Le ntlenga iqokeleleka phakathi kolwandle kunye nesiqithi, idala indawo yokuqokelelana enokubonakala njengoko isiqithi sibotshelelwe kwilizwekazi.  Ukukhukula kweLittoral kuxhomekeke kwicala lomoya.  Ukuze umoya uqhubeke ngokuqhubekayo, ulwalathiso lomoya kufuneka lubhekise kwicala elibaluleke kakhulu.  Ngaphandle koko, awuyi kuba nakho ukuqokelela intlenge kwicala elinye.  Ngamanye amaxesha, ukuba ezi fomati zenzeka ngenxa yokuhamba konxweme, ayithathwa njengeyinyani.  I-tombolo eyinyani yile yenziwe ngamaza okuza ngamaza kunye namaqhezu aqhekezayo.  Imisebenzi ilandela amandla ashukumisayo alawulwa ngamandla nolwalathiso lomoya.  Le misila isiya ngaselunxwemeni kwaye iyacotha xa ihamba emanzini amancinci.  Oku kuncipha kungenxa yokukhuphana kwamaza kunye nomhlaba.  Amandla okuxubana anciphisa isantya ahamba ngaso amaza ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokuba aphule.  Ewe, xa ifikelela kwiziqithi zikufutshane nonxweme, kuba amaza ahamba kancinci kunokuba aqhelekile, ajikeleza isiqithi endaweni yokugqitha kuso.  Njengokuba amanzi esihla kancinane esiqithini, aqokelela intlenge endleleni.  Izidumbu zibekiwe kwaye ziyaqhubeka nokuqokelelana kude kube kudala ibar yesanti edibanisa isiqithi nesicwangciso.  Ngokucacileyo, le okanye yinkqubo ende kakhulu ngexesha.  Oko kukuthi, oku kunxulumene nesikali sexesha sejoloji (ikhonkco).  Olona phawu ludumileyo emhlabeni Okulandelayo, siza kuchaza ezona mpawu ziphambili zeempawu eziphambili kwihlabathi.  Siqale ngaleyo ise Chesil Beach.  Ime eDorset, emazantsi eNgilani.  Lubonakala ngokuba ziimitha ezili-115 ukuphakama ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle kwaye unolwandle oluziikhilomitha ezingama-29 ubude ne-200 yeemitha ububanzi.  Kukubaluleka kwale tomboy kangangokuba kwathiwa yiNdawo yeLifa leMveli le-UNESCO.  Enye idombolo edumileyo yile yeTrafalgar.  Olu lwakhiwo lungena elwandle kwaye lulunika imbonakalo entle yeeperile yesanti entle.  Yenza indawo entle enonxweme oluninzi kwindawo enamatye enika umbono omangalisayo we-panoramic.  Umdla kolu lwakhiwo ubangelwa kukuba kuphela komzekelo e-Andalusia yedombolo ephindwe kabini.  Kule ngozi yokwakheka komhlaba sifumanisa ukuba umgubo uhlanjiwe ngamaza kwaye wenze ii-tombolos ezimbini ezidibene nesiqithi kunye nonxweme.  Le manyano ivale ngaphakathi ngaphakathi uxinzelelo oluncinci olukhukula xa imvula iphakame kuneqhelekileyo.  Nangona kunjalo, olu xinzelelo lunemihla yalo yokubala kuba izinto ziya kungcwaba kwaye zinciphise ubunzulu.  Xa ulwandle lwayeka, umoya wenza inkqubo yeendunduma kumanxweme asezantsi kwesi siqithi.  Ixesha elingaphezulu, ukhukuliseko lomhlaba lubenegalelo ekuphelisweni kwala mathandabuzo.  Namhlanje yonke le nkqubo yeendunduma igutyungelwe zizityalo ezinje ngejunipha kunye nemastic.  Kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba utyani luyasebenza ukulungisa isanti.  Umzekelo, sifumana iintyatyambo ze-wallflower yaselwandle, imithwalo yolwandle kunye neenyibiba zaselwandle ezinceda ukulungisa isanti kunye nokwenza ingubo enemibala.  Kwiindawo ezizinzileyo, sinokufumana iimpondo zolwandle, i-sagebrush kunye ne-carnations.  Kwelinye icala, kwindawo enezikhukula sifumana iingcongolo ezisebenza njengendawo yokuhlala iindwendwe njengeentaka zaselwandle, intaka yaselwandle eneentaka ezibomvu kunye neenyawo ezimnyama.

Yintoni itombolo

Sikubonisa ezona mpawu ziphambili zedombolo kunye nendlela eyakhiwe ngayo. Funda ngakumbi malunga nokwenziwa kwe-geological apha.

Iimbonakalo zomhlaba kunye neencopho eziphakamileyo

Iintaba zeApennine

Sikufundisa yonke into oyifunayo malunga neeNtaba zeApennine. Yi-cordidella eyenza umqolo we-Italiya.

Ukutsala

Yintoni i-scree

Kule nqaku sikuxelela ukuba yintoni i-scree kwaye yenziwa njani. Yazi yonke into malunga nokwakheka komhlaba okwenzeka ezintabeni.

isekisi yomkhenkce

Iiskisi zeGlacier

Kule nqaku sikuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neesekisi zomkhenkce. Funda malunga neempawu kunye nokubaluleka.

Ityathanga lentaba

Yintoni i-orography

Kule nqaku sikubonisa ukuba yintoni ubume bomhlaba nokuba ubaluleke kangakanani ukufundwa kwawo. Apha unokufumana ulwazi olulungileyo.

Iliwa elingenayo

Amatye ePlutonic

Kule nqaku sigxile ekukuxeleleni ukuba zeziphi iintlobo eziphambili zamatye e-plutonic kunye neempawu zawo. Funda ngako konke apha.

Njengoko kukhankanyiwe kumanqaku athile, ubudala bomhlaba kucingelwa ukuba buphakathi kweminyaka eyi-4.400 kunye ne-5.100 yezigidigidi zeminyaka.  Le ithiyori ichazwa ngokusetyenziswa kweendlela zedijometri zokuthandana ngenxa yolwazi kunye nezinto ezinokutsalwa kwi-meteorites.  Ubungqina boku buhambelana, kungatsho ukuba le yimvelaphi yoMhlaba.  Ukucacisa zonke iziganeko ezithe zenzeka kwiplanethi yethu, ubunyani buyasetyenziswa.  Ngumthetho osekwe kwinkolelo yokuba iziganeko ezenzekileyo kwimbali ziyafana nezo zenzeka ngoku.  Kweli nqaku siza kwalatha into eyiyo, ziyintoni iimpawu zayo kwaye ibaluleke kangakanani.  Ngumgaqo-siseko okhutshwe nguJames Hutton kwaye uphuhliswe nguCharles Lyell (ikhonkco) apho kufunyenwe khona ukuba iinkqubo ezithe zenzeka kwimbali yoMhlaba ziyafana nezo zenzeka ngoku.  Yiyo le nto ithiyori ibizwa ngokuba yinyani.  Le nyani ikwajongwa njengentlekele.  Kukuba abalinganiswa bejoloji banamhlanje ngesiquphe bakheka kumbulelo odlulileyo kutshintsho nakwinguqu.  Ezinye zezona zixhobo zibaluleke kakhulu apho ubunyani kunye nokufana kusebenza ukukhipha ulwazi kwizinto zethu zangaphambili kukuphambuka komgaqo, ukulandelelana kwesilwanyana kunye nokulandelelana kweziganeko ngaphambili nakwixesha langoku.  Lo mthetho waqinisekiswa ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX nasekuqaleni kwe-XNUMX.  Kwakungokwezendalo abakwaziyo ukuqinisekisa ubungqina ngokujonga umphezulu woMhlaba.  Ezi zinto zendalo ziyangqina kwaye bazixhasa kwezi nyaniso ukuze baqonde ubume bomhlaba kunye nayo yonke indaleko.  Ngokusengqiqweni iyavakala.  Kutheni le nto iinkqubo ziza kutshintsha ngokuhamba kwexesha?  Iipateni zotshintsho lweatmosfera, umhlaba, iiarhente zejoloji (ikhonkco), njl.  Bayafana nabo benze ekuqaleni kwayo yonke into.  Kuya kufuneka uqaphele ukuba ngaphambi kokuba i-atmosfere ibingenakho ukwenziwa okufanayo.  Kodwa ke, ukuza kuthi ga namhlanje, ukwakhiwa kwayo kusaguqulwa.  Mhlawumbi lixesha lejoloji (ikhonkco) elenza ukuba sicinge ukuba bekukho ezinye iziganeko zejoloji ngaphambili kunangoku.  Umoya, imisinga yolwandle, imvula, izaqhwithi, njl.  Zenzekile xa kwavela uMhlaba.  Ngesi sizathu, into ekhuselwa yimeko yangoku kukuba ikwayiziganeko ezifanayo eziguqula umhlaba kwaye zibangela ukuba ziguquke, kodwa ukuza kuthi ga kulo mhla, zisasebenza kwaye zisebenza.  IGenesis Imvelaphi yokuma komhlaba kunye neentsika zachazwa ngale ndlela zizenzo zamanzi, umoya kunye namaza abazijongileyo nabanokuthi balinganise iziphumo zawo yonke imihla.  Abo baxhasa intlekele, bachasa umbono wobunyani, kuba bekhusela ukuba iintlambo ezinkulu, ukwakheka komhlaba kunye nezitya zolwandle zenzekile ngenxa yeentlekele ezinkulu ezenzeka ngaphambili.  Banokufumaneka kwizicatshulwa zenkolo ezinjengeBhayibhile kunye noNogumbe wayo onokuthi uchazwe njengonobangela wezinto ezinkulu ezinentaba ezazikhukulisa intili.  Kukho konke oku kukho indawo yokufana.  Yinzululwazi yokwakheka komhlaba ethi ithiyori ithi iinkqubo ezikhoyo ngoku zenzekile ngokuthe ngcembe.  Ukongeza, zingunobangela weempawu zejoloji anazo iplanethi yethu.  Okokukhusela ukufana kukuba ezi nkqubo zigcinwe kude kube namhlanje ngaphandle kotshintsho.  Ubunyani bebhayoloji Ngumgaqo oxhasa ubudlelwane phakathi kwezidalwa ezikhoyo namhlanje kunye nezakudala.  Ngokusisiseko, yintoni eyenzeka kubuchwephesha bebhayoloji iqinisekisa ukuba iinkqubo ezenziwa zizinto eziphilayo namhlanje zenziwa ngaphambili.  Akukho nanye kuloo nto itshintshileyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku.  Ukwenza icace kwaye kube lula ukuyiqonda.  Ukuba uhlobo luphefumla kwaye luvelise kwakhona, kunokwenzeka ukuba ezi nkqubo bezisenziwa nakwiminyaka eyadlulayo.  Ke, ukuba sidibanisa oku kunye neenkqubo zejoloji, siyakube siqinisekisa ukuba iinkqubo ezifanayo bezisoloko zisenzeka kwaye akukho nanye kuzo etshintshileyo namhlanje.  Kuyinyani ukuba ezi nkqubo ziye zaneempawu zazo, ngenxa yokuba izinto eziphilayo kuye kwafuneka ukuba ziqhelane neemeko ezintsha kunye neemeko eziguqulwe ziiarhente zejoloji kule minyaka idlulileyo.  Nangona kunjalo, nangona izinto eziguqukayo ziguquka, isiseko senkqubo siyahlonitshwa, oko kukuthi, kuyaphefumlwa kwaye bayazala.  Ubunyani bebhayoloji busebenza kwiinkqubo ezinje ngokuvelisa nokuzala.  Izinto sele ziqala ukutshintsha xa sithetha ngokuziphatha kwezinto eziphilayo.  Kule meko, iinkqubo zinzima ngakumbi ekusebenziseni ubunyani bebhayoloji.  Njengabantu abazivumelanisa neemeko ezintsha, asinakuqinisekisa ukuba kukuziphatha okufanayo abanako ngamaxesha onke.  Ngapha koko, akunakwenzeka ukuba uthathe isimilo sokuziphatha kweentlobo ezingasekhoyo kwaye wazi ukuba kuyafana na kwezi zangoku, kwizigidi nakwiminyaka eyadlulayo.  Umzekelo, ngaphambi kwexesha lomkhenkce (ikhonkco), izinto eziphilayo kufuneka ziguqule indlela eziziphethe ngayo ukuze zikwazi ukuziqhelanisa neemeko kwaye zisinde.  Ukufuduka yenye yeendlela zokuziphatha eziye zagcinwa kuyo yonke into ephilayo, kuba sisimo sokusinda ekufumaneni indawo yokuhlala apho banokuvelisa khona kwaye babe neemeko zokuphila ezilungileyo.  Ukufumana lonke ulwazi malunga nokwenzekileyo kuyo yonke imbali, ubunyani kunye ne-uniformitarianism ziyasetyenziswa, ezikhuselweyo kulandelelwano lwezinto eziphilayo, ukulandelelana kweziganeko kunye nokuphakanyiswa komtya.  Ngokwolwazi olunokufumaneka kulwahlulo lweefosili ezahlukeneyo, sinakho oku kulandelayo: • Indawo ababenayo ngokubhekisele kumgangatho wolwandle • Iqondo lobushushu ababehlala kulo • Iintyatyambo nezilwanyana zazikho ngelo xesha Ukuhamba kwetectonic Njengoko ubona, inzululwazi izama ukucacisa indlela uMhlaba ovele ngayo namhlanje.

Eyona nyani

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nobunyani kunye nokudaleka koMhlaba. Fumanisa yonke le nto apha.

Idama laseLoess

Idama laseLoess

Kule nqaku sikubonisa iimpawu, ukubunjwa kunye nokubaluleka kwetanki yeLoess. Funda ngako konke apha.

Izimbiwa kunye namatye

Izimbiwa kunye namatye

Kule nqaku sikubonisa iimpawu zezimbiwa kunye namatye, kunye nokuhlelwa kwazo. Ukuba unamathandabuzo ngayo, yile post yakho.

Izilwanyana ze-Ediacara

Izilwanyana ze-Ediacara

Kule nqaku sithetha ukutyhila iimfihlelo zezilwanyana zase-Ediacara. Ukuba uthanda i-geology kunye nokuziphendukela kwemvelo, apha uya kufunda malunga nayo.

Ngokuqinisekileyo ngamanye amaxesha ebomini bakho ukhe watyelela umqolomba.  Imiqolomba mihle, inomdla kwaye ikhethekile imeko yomhlaba apho sinendawo yendalo.  Emiqolombeni sinokuxabisa ulwakhiwo lwendalo oluthile olunomtsalane ngobuhle nokungaqhelekanga kwabo.  Ezi zakhiwo zibizwa ngokuba yi-stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites.  Abantu abaninzi bajonga ezi zakhiwo zejoloji njengemisebenzi yokwenene yobugcisa bendalo.  Yinto efanelekileyo ukuba uyazi ukuba awukayiboni ngaphambili, ngokuqinisekileyo iyakumangalisa.  Kodwa zahluke njani i-stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites?  Zenziwa njani?  Siza kuyiphendula yonke le mibuzo kweli nqaku.  Yintoni ii-stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites, nangona zinamagama afanayo, kodwa kukho umahluko omangalisayo phakathi kwazo.  Ubume bayo kunye nobume bayo bohlukile.  I-Stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites zinento enye efanayo: zii-speleotomes.  Olu luvo lubhekisa kwinto yokuba ziidipozithi ezithi zenziwe emiqolombeni emva kokusekwa kwazo.  Ama-speleotomes avela ngenxa yemvula yemvula evelayo ngexesha lokuyilwa kwezinto eziqinileyo ezivela kwisisombululo.  Zombini ii-stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites zivela kwiidipozithi ze-calcium carbonate.  Ezi zinto zenzeka kwimiqolomba yelitye lekalika.  Oko akuthethi ukuba ayisiyiyo imeko apho inokubumba khona kwimingxunya eyenziweyo okanye ye-anthropic evela kwezinye iidipozithi ezahlukeneyo.  Umahluko ophambili phakathi kwezi ndlela zimbini yindawo.  Inye nganye inenkqubo eyahlukileyo yokwakheka kunomnye kwaye, ke, indawo yayo ngaphakathi komqolomba iyatshintsha.  Siza kukuhlalutya ngokweenkcukacha, sichaze ukuba yintoni na nganye.  I-Stalactites Siqala ngokwenzeka okuvela eluphahleni.  Ukukhula kwayo kuqala encamini yomqolomba kuye ezantsi.  Ukuqala kwe-stalactite yithontsi lamanzi amaminerali.  Njengoko amathontsi esiwa, ashiya umkhondo we-calcite ngasemva.  I-Calcite yiminerali eyakhiwe ngecalcium carbonate, yiyo loo nto isenza ukuba sinxibelelane namanzi.  Ukutyhubela iminyaka, emva kokuwa kwamathontsi alandelelanayo, i-calcite engaphezulu nangaphezulu ifakwa kwaye iqokelela.  Xa oku kugcwele, siyabona ukuba iya isiba nkulu ngokuba nkulu kwaye ithatha imilo eyahlukeneyo.  Ubume obuqhelekileyo bubume bekona.  Eyona nto ixhaphakileyo kukubona inani elikhulu lee-calcite cones ezinamanzi aphuma kwisilingi.  Ubungakanani bee-cones buxhomekeke kubungakanani bamaconsi amanzi ajikeleze kuloo ndawo kunye nexesha lokuhamba kwamathontsi okurhuqa i-calcite.  Kunokuthiwa ukuba ii-stalactites zilwakhiwo lwerwala olwenziwe ukusuka phezulu kuye ezantsi.  Embindini we-stalactite, kukho umjelo apho amanzi amaminerali eqhubeka nokujikeleza.  Yile nto yahlulahlula kwezinye iindlela zokwakheka komhlaba ezinembonakalo efanayo.  I-Stalagmites Ngoku siqhubeka nokuchaza i-stalagmites.  Kwelinye icala, zizinto ezivela emhlabeni kwaye zikhule ziye phezulu.  Njengalezi zangaphambili, i-stalagmites iqala ukwenza ngokuthotywa kwemaminerali kunye ne-calcite.  La mathontsi awayo aqokelela iidipozithi ze-calcite ngokulandelelana.  Ukubunjwa apha kuyahluka ngakumbi kuba abanalo umzila ophakathi njengama-stalactites apho amathontsi amanzi ajikeleza khona ngenxa yamandla omxhuzulane.  Umahluko omnye kukuba zikhulu ngakumbi kune-stalactites.  Ngenxa yenkqubo yokwakha, ii-stalagmites zinemilo ejikeleze ngakumbi kunesimo sekhoni.  Kuqheleke ngakumbi ukubona ezinye zenziwe ngendlela engaqhelekanga.  Ezona milo zixhaphakileyo zezi zeemilo ezibhubhu ngqo ezibizwa ngokuba yimacaroni.  Olunye ulwakhiwo oluqhelekileyo zii-conulitos (zinesakhiwo esinjengomngxuma obalwayo), iiperile (ezinemilo ejikeleze ngakumbi) kunye nezinye ezingaphezulu.  I-Stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites zihlala zijongana.  Kuqhelekile ukubona i-stalactite ngasentla kwaye i-perpendicular to it stalagmite.  Kungenxa yokuba amathontsi aqengqelekayo ukusuka kwi-stalactite, aneentsalela ze-calcite ezibekwe emhlabeni ukwenza i-stalagmite.  Zenziwa njani ii-stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites Siza kuhlalutya inkqubo yokwenziwa kwazo zombini iidipozithi.  Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, zenziwa yinkqubo yemvula eyimvula.  Ezi zimbiwa zichaphazela amanzi.  Ezi zinto zenziwe ngenxa yokuba i-CO2 enyibilikayo emanzini emvula yenza ikhalsiyam carbonate xa idibana nelitye lekalika.  Kuxhomekeke kulawulo lwemvula kunye nenqanaba lokungena kwamanzi, ezi zakhiwo ziya kwenzeka kungekudala okanye kamva.  Ngamanzi emvula angena emhlabeni aze achithe ilitye lekalika.  Ngenxa yoko, la mathontsi enza imilo kwezi dipozithi.  I-calcium bicarbonate inyibilika kakhulu emanzini kwaye yiyo eyenziwayo emva koqhakamshelwano ne-CO2 eziswa ngamanzi emvula.  Le bicarbonate ivelisa indawo apho i-CO2 ibalekayo ethi, xa isabela, inyibilike ngohlobo lwecalcium carbonate.  I-calcium carbonate iqala ukuvela kwimixube ethile ejikeleze indawo apho ukuwa kwehla khona.  Oku kwenzeka kuphela kwi-stalactites, njengoko amathontsi esiwa ngenxa yendlela yomxhuzulane ebanyanzela ukuba bawele emhlabeni.  Ke ngoko, amathontsi aphela echitheka emhlabeni.  Ungalubona phi olu lwakhiwo Ngokuqinisekileyo uyakuchukumiseka ukuba awuzange uzibone ezi zakhiwo ngaphambili (ezingaqhelekanga kakhulu).  Nangona kunjalo, siza kukuxelela iindawo apho unokufumana khona eyona stalactite inkulu kunye ne-stalagmite formations.  Ukuba luyilo olucothayo, ukuze zikhule kuphela i-2,5 cm ubude, kuthatha malunga ne-4.000 okanye i-5.000 iminyaka.  Eyona stalactite inkulu emhlabeni inokufumaneka kwiMiqolomba yeNerja, ebekwe kwiphondo laseMalaga.  Ziziimitha ezingama-60 ukuphakama kunye neemitha ezili-18 ubukhulu.  Ukuyilwa ngokupheleleyo kuthathe iminyaka engama-450.000.  Kwelinye icala, eyona stalagmite inkulu emhlabeni ingama-67 eemitha ukuphakama kwaye inokufumaneka kumqolomba waseMartín Infierno, eCuba.

Stalactites kunye neestalagmites

Kule posi sichaza ngokweenkcukacha ukuba zenziwa njani ii-stalactites kunye ne-stalagmites kwaye ungandwendwela kwelona likhulu emhlabeni.

Ubume bomhlaba

Ubume bomhlaba

Kule posi ungafumana yonke into enxulumene neempawu kunye nokubaluleka komhlaba. Ngena apha ukwazi ngayo.

UMlambo iColorado

IRío Colado

Kule posi sikuxelela yonke into oyifunayo malunga noMlambo iColorado. Ngena apha ukufumana izinto ezinomdla zalo mlambo udumileyo.

Kule planethi kukho iindawo apho ingozi ixhaphake ngakumbi kunabanye kwaye, ke ngoko, le mimandla ifumana amagama ahlabayo onokucinga ukuba abhekisa kwinto eyingozi ngakumbi.  Kule meko siza kuthetha ngesangqa somlilo sePasifiki.  Abanye bayayazi njengendandatho yomlilo yePacific kunye nabanye njengebhanti le-circum-Pacific.  La magama onke abhekisa kwingingqi ejikeleze olu lwandle kwaye apho kukho zombini inyikima ephezulu kakhulu kunye nomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo.  Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni iringi yePacific yomlilo, ziimpawu ezinjani kunye nokubaluleka kwazo kwizifundo nakulwazi lomhlaba.  Yintoni iringi yePacific yoMlilo? Kule ndawo imile okwehashe kwaye hayi isangqa, kukho isixa esikhulu semisebenzi yenyikima kunye nentaba-mlilo.  Oku kwenza ukuba le ndawo ibe yingozi ngakumbi ngenxa yeentlekele ezinokubangelwa.  Eli bhanti linwebeka ngaphezulu kweekhilomitha ezingama-40.000 ukusuka eNew Zealand ukuya kuthi ga kunxweme olusentshona eMzantsi Merika.  Ikwawela wonke ummandla wonxweme lwe-Mpuma ye-Asia kunye neAlaska kwaye idlule kumantla mpuma eMntla Melika nakuMbindi Merika.  Njengoko kukhankanyiwe kwiiplate tectonics (ikhonkco), eli bhanti liphawula imiphetho ekhoyo kwipleyiti yePasifiki kunye namanye amacwecwe amacwecwe amancinci enza into ebizwa ngokuba ngumhlaba (ikhonkco).  Ukuba yindawo enenyikima ephezulu kunye nomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo, ichazwa njengengozi.  Yayilwa njani?  Isangqa somlilo sePasifiki senziwa kukuhamba kwamacwecwe eteknoloji.  Amacwecwe awalungiswanga, kodwa ahamba ngokuqhubekayo.  Oku kungenxa yemisinga ye-convection ekhoyo kwingubo yoMhlaba.  Umahluko kubuninzi beemathiriyeli ubangela ukuba zihambe kwaye zikhokelele ekuhambeni kwamacwecwe eteknoloji.  Ngale ndlela, ukufuduswa kweesentimitha ezimbalwa ngonyaka kuyafezekiswa.  Asiyiqapheli kwinqanaba lomntu, kodwa ibonisa ukuba sivavanya ixesha le-geological (ikhonkco).  Ngaphezulu kwesigidi seminyaka, ukuhamba kwala macwecwe kuye kwabangela ukuyilwa komsesane wePacific womlilo.  Amacwecwe e-tectonic awamanyananga ngokupheleleyo, kodwa kukho umsantsa phakathi kwawo.  Zihlala zi malunga neekhilomitha ezingama-80 ubukhulu kwaye zihamba ngomsinga okhankanyiweyo okhankanyiweyo engubeni.  Njengoko la macwecwe esihamba, athambekele ekubeni zombini zohlukane kwaye zingqubane enye kwenye.  Kuxhomekeke kubuninzi bayo nganye, enye inokuntywila ngaphezulu kwenye.  Umzekelo, iipleyiti zolwandlekazi zinexinano ephezulu kunelizwekazi.  Ke ngoko, zezi, xa zombini iipleyiti zingqubana, zehlise phambi kwelinye.  Oku kuhamba kunye nokungqubana kwamacwecwe kuvelisa umsebenzi omkhulu wejoloji kwimiphetho yamacwecwe.  Ke ngoko, ezi ndawo zithathwa njengezisebenza ngokukodwa.  Imida yamacwecwe esiyifumanayo: • Imida yokuguqula izinto.  Kule mida kulapho iipleyiti zeetekoni zidibana khona.  Oku kunokubangela ukuba isitya esisindayo singqubane nesikhanyayo.  Ngale ndlela, into eyaziwa ngokuba yindawo yokuthimba yenziwe.  Enye ipleyiti ihambisa ngaphaya kwenye.  Kwezi ndawo apho oku kusenzeka khona, kukho isixa esikhulu sentaba-mlilo kuba olu thanjiso lubangela ukuba umgqakhwe unyuke uqweqwe.  Ngokucacileyo, oku akwenzeki ngomzuzwana.  Yinkqubo ethatha amawaka ezigidi eminyaka.  Le yindlela ekwakhiwe ngayo iingqameko zentaba-mlilo.  • Imida eyahlukileyo.  Zizo ezichasene ngokupheleleyo neziguqukayo.  Kwezi amacwecwe zikwimeko yokwahlukana.  Unyaka ngamnye bayahlula ngakumbi, benza indawo entsha yolwandle.  • Imida yenguqu.  Kule mida amacwecwe awahlukanga okanye ajoyine, ayasilayida ngendlela efanayo okanye ethe tye.  • Iindawo ezishushu.  Yeyona mimandla apho ingubo yomhlaba esemazantsi epleyiti inobushushu obungaphezulu kwezinye iindawo.  Kule meko, i-magma eshushu iyakwazi ukunyuka ngaphezulu ize ivelise iintaba-mlilo ezisebenzayo.  Umda wamacwecwe uthathelwa ingqalelo njengemimandla apho zombini izinto zejoloji kunye nentaba-mlilo zigxile khona.  Ngesi sizathu, kuyinto eqhelekileyo ukuba iintaba-mlilo ezininzi kunye neenyikima zijolise kumjikelo womlilo wePasifiki.  Ingxaki kuxa inyikima isenzeka elwandle kwaye ikhokelela kwitsunami ene tsunami ehambelana nayo.  Kule meko, ingozi inyuka ukuya kwinqanaba lokuba inokubangela iintlekele ezinje ngeFukushima ngo-2011.  I-Pacific Ring yeMisebenzi yoMlilo Njengoko unokuba uqaphele, iintaba-mlilo azisasazwa ngokulinganayo kwiplanethi yonke.  Ngokuchasene noko.  Ziyinxalenye yendawo apho umsebenzi wejoloji mkhulu khona.  Ukuba lo msebenzi ubungekho, iintaba-mlilo bezingayi kubakho.  Iinyikima zibangelwa kukuqokelelana nokukhululwa kwamandla phakathi kwamacwecwe.  Ezi nyikima zixhaphake kakhulu kumazwe apho sibekwe ecaleni kwePacific Ring of Fire.  Kwaye le ring yomlilo igxila kwiipesenti ezingama-75 zazo zonke iintaba-mlilo ezisebenzayo kwiplanethi yonke.  Iinyikima ezingama-90% nazo ziyenzeka.  Zininzi iziqithi kunye neearchipelagos kunye kunye neentaba-mlilo ezahlukileyo ezinogonyamelo kunye nokuqhushumba.  Iingqameko ze-volcanic nazo ziqhelekile.  Ziyimixokelelwane yeentaba-mlilo elele phezu kwamacwecwe okuthambisa.  Le nyaniso yenza ukuba abantu abaninzi kwihlabathi liphela babenomdla kunye noloyiko ngeli bhanti lomlilo.  Kungenxa yokuba amandla ezisebenza kuwo makhulu kwaye anokukhupha iintlekele zendalo zokwenyani.

I-Pacific Ring yoMlilo

Kweli nqaku siza kukubonisa ezona mpawu ziphambili zeringi yomlilo yePasifiki, imvelaphi nokubaluleka kwayo. Sukuphoswa yiyo!

Iimpawu zomxholo woMhlaba

Isiseko soMhlaba

Kule posi sichaza ngokweenkcukacha iimpawu, ukwakheka kunye nemvelaphi yentsika yoMhlaba. Ngena ukuze wazi yonke into malunga nayo.

Imagnethi yomhlaba

Imagnethi yomhlaba

Kule nqaku siza kuchaza ukuba yintoni umhlaba onamandla omhlaba, ungowantoni kwaye uvela njani. Ngena apha ukuze ufunde okungakumbi ngomhlaba wethu.

Uqweqwe lwelizwekazi kunye nolwandle

Uqweqwe lwelizwekazi

Kule nqaku sichaza ngokweenkcukacha zonke izinto ekufuneka uzazile malunga ne-Continental crust kunye nokwenziwa kwayo. Sukuphoswa yiyo!

Pegmatite

Pegmatite

Ngena apha ukuze ufunde ngokweenkcukacha zonke izinto malunga ne-pegmatite. Unokufunda malunga neempawu zayo, imvelaphi kunye nokusetyenziswa okuphambili.

ipanoramic yeshelfu yelizwekazi

Iqonga lelizwekazi

Ishelfu yelizwekazi ibaluleke kakhulu koorhulumente njengoko ibonelela ngezixhobo ezininzi zendalo, ngena apha kwaye ufunde ngayo.

I-Aconcagua

I-Aconcagua

Sichaza ngokweenkcukacha zonke izinto ekufuneka uzazile malunga neAconcagua. Ngena apha ukuze wazi ubungangamsha bezi ntaba. Sukuphoswa yiyo!

Ilitye lentlabathi

Ilitye lentlabathi

I-sandstone lelona litye lininzi kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngena apha ukuze wazi yonke into malunga neli litye. Ukusetyenziswa, uqeqesho kunye nokuhlelwa.

Imifuno yeeNtaba zeBasque

Iintaba zeBasque

Kule posi unokufumana ulwazi oluneenkcukacha malunga neeNtaba zeBasque. Funda ngejografi, utyani kunye nemozulu yezi ntaba.

IMontes de León

IMontes de León

Kule posi unokufumana ulwazi olulungileyo malunga neMontes de León. Uya kuba nakho ukwazi iintaba zayo eziphambili kunye neencopho kunye nemozulu ekhoyo.

Iintaba zeMalaga

Iintaba zeMalaga

Kule nqaku ungafumana imbali, iimpawu kunye nobuhle beMontes de Málaga. Ngena apha ukuze uyazi ngokunzulu.

Yintoni ongayibona kwiintaba zaseToledo

IMontes de Toledo

Kweli nqaku sikubonisa into omawuyibone ezintabeni zaseToledo. Sikunika inkcazo yeendawo eziphambili zokundwendwela. Sukuphoswa yiyo!

Iintaba zeGalicia

Iintaba zeGalicia

Kule nqaku sikubonisa bonke ubutyebi bejoloji yeentaba zaseGalician. Funda malunga neempawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo apha.

IiNtaba zeNdalo iphela

IiNtaba zeNdalo iphela

Kule nqaku uza kuba nakho ukufumana iimpawu zejografi zeentaba ze-Universal, ukongeza kokwazi enye yeendlela ezilungileyo.

Iintaba zeUral

Iintaba zeUral

Sikuxelela ezona mpawu ziphambili zeentaba zeUral kunye nokwenziwa kwazo, ukubaluleka kwezoqoqosho, iintyatyambo nezilwanyana. Sukuphoswa yiyo!

UNicolas Steno

UNicolas Steno

Kule nqaku sichaza i-biology yonke kaNicolas Steno kunye nezona zinto ziphambili azenzileyo. Fumana konke malunga noyise wejoloji.

UJames Hutton

UJames Hutton

Kule posi sikuxelela ngokweenkcukacha ezinkulu i-biografi kunye nokufumanisa ukuba uJames Hutton ufake igalelo kwijoloji. Yazi yonke into ngaye.

UCharles Lyell

UCharles Lyell

Kule nqaku, uya kudibana noCharles Lyell, omnye wabaseki be-geology yanamhlanje. Ngena kwaye ufunde ngomsebenzi wakhe kunye nezinto azifumeneyo.

Orinoco ukhenketho

Umlambo iOrinoco

Ngena apha kwaye ufunde yonke into malunga noMlambo iOrinoco. Ngomnye wemilambo emikhulu ehlabathini kwaye ubaluleke kakhulu kuMzantsi Melika wonke.

Ukusekwa kweentaba

Orogenesis

Sichaza ngokweenkcukacha yonke into enxulumene ne-orogenesis. Funda ukuba zenziwa njani iintaba. Ngena ngoku!

Amachibi ama-5 amaLwandle amakhulu

Amachibi amakhulu eMntla Melika

Amachibi ama-5 amaLwandle oMntla Melika aneempawu ezizodwa kwihlabathi liphela. Ngena apha kwaye wazi zonke iimfihlelo zayo. Sikuxelela yonke into.

ububanzi bomhlaba

Ngubani ububanzi bomhlaba?

Kule nqaku uza kuba nakho ukwazi ukuba yintoni ububanzi bomhlaba kunye nendlela olinganiswe ngayo. Ngena apha kwaye ufunde konke malunga nayo.

Iintaba zeCarpathia

Iintaba zeCarpathia

Iintaba zeCarpathia zijolise kwimisebenzi emininzi yabakhenkethi ngenxa yeempawu zabo ezizodwa. Apha ungazi yonke into ekufuneka uyazi kwaye uyibone.

ulwandle lwe-aegean kunye neembono zalo

Ulwandle iAegean

Kule posi uya kulwazi uLwandle lweAegean ngokunzulu, ukusuka kunjani kwaye lubekwe phi na kwizinto eziphilayo ezikhoyo kunye nezisongelo. Ngena uze uyazi.

ukumila komhlaba

Wadalwa njani uMhlaba

Kule posi ungafunda yonke into malunga noMhlaba owenziwe ngayo. Funda ngakumbi ngeplanethi yethu kunye nendlela eguquke ngayo ukutyhubela iminyaka.

iilwandle ezibomvu

Ulwandle olubomvu

Kule posi uya kufunda ukuba lwenziwa njani uLwandle oluBomvu kwaye yintoni umbala walo ocacileyo. Ngaba uyafuna ukufunda ngayo? Ngena apha.

iiarhente zangaphandle zejoloji

Iiarhente zejoloji

Iiarhente zeJoloji zijongene nokuguqula imbonakalo yomhlaba kunye noncedo loMhlaba. Funda ukuba ziyintoni kwaye zisebenza njani apha.