Ubume boMhlaba

Umhlaba

Siphila kwiplanethi entsonkothileyo kwaye egqibeleleyo enezinto ezingenakubalwa ezigcina zikulungelelanise kwaye zivumela ubomi. Ubume boMhlaba Yahlulwe yangamacandelo amabini ngokusisiseko. Okokuqala ingaphakathi lomhlaba wethu lihlalutyiwe. Kubalulekile ukwazi ukuba yintoni ngaphakathi eMhlabeni ukuqonda uninzi lwemiba engaphandle. Emva kwexesha, kuyafuneka ukuba sihlalutye onke amalungu angaphandle ngolungelelwano, xa zizonke, ukuze sazi iplanethi apho sihlala khona.

Kule posi siza kuhlalutya kwaye sazi ngobunzulu ubume boMhlaba. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi ngayo?

Ubume bangaphakathi boMhlaba

Ubume bangaphakathi boMhlaba

Umhlaba unikezela isakhiwo esenziwe ngamanqanaba okugxila apho zonke izinto eziyidibanisayo ziyatshintsha. Inyaniso yokuba bohlulwe ngamanqanaba sinokuyazi ngenxa yokuhamba kwamaza enyikima xa kukho inyikima. Ukuba sihlalutya iplanethi ukusuka ngaphakathi ukuya ngaphandle, sinokujonga la maleko alandelayo.

Core

Isiseko sangaphakathi

Eyona nto ingumaleko ongaphakathi woMhlaba apho izixa ezikhulu zentsimbi kunye ne-nickel zifunyenwe. Ityhidiwe ngokuyinxenye kwaye ingunobangela woMhlaba onamandla amakhulu. Ikwabizwa ngokuba yi-endosphere.

Izinto ziyanyibilika ngenxa yamaqondo obushushu aphezulu apho undoqo ufumaneka khona. Ezinye zeenkqubo zangaphakathi zomhlaba zibonakalisa ngaphezulu. Sinokubona iinyikima, ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo okanye ukufuduswa kwamazwekazi (iitectonics zeplate).

Ingubo

Ingubo yomhlaba

Ingubo yomhlaba iphezulu kwaye yenziwe ubukhulu becala ngeesilicates. Ngumaleko ojiyileyo kunombindi womhlaba kwaye awumxinwa njengoko usondela ngaphezulu. Ikwabizwa ngokuba yimesosphere.

Kunye noluhlu olubanzi lwenzeka izinto ezininzi zokuhanjiswa kwezixhobo. Le mibutho yiyo eyenza amazwekazi ahambe. Izinto ezishushu ezishushu ezivela kunyuko olusisiseko kwaye xa zipholile, zibuyela umva ngaphakathi. Le mibhobho yokuhanjiswa kwengubo ijongene ne intshukumo yamacwecwe eteknoloji.

ICortex

Iimodeli zesakhiwo soMhlaba

Ngumaleko ongaphandle ongaphakathi komhlaba. Ikwabizwa ngokuba lithosphere. Iqukethe i-silicates elula, i-carbonates kunye ne-oxides. Ingqindilili kwindawo apho amazwekazi abekwe khona kunye nokubhitya apho kukho iilwandlekazi. Ke ngoko yahlulahlulwe yangamatye olwandlekazi kunye nolwezwekazi. Isikhumba ngasinye sinoxinano lwaso kwaye senziwe ngezinto ezithile.

Yindawo esebenzayo ngokuma komhlaba apho iinkqubo ezininzi zangaphakathi zibonakaliswa. Oku kubangelwe ngamaqondo obushushu ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. Kukho iinkqubo zangaphandle ezinje nge Ukhukuliseko, ukuthuthwa kunye nentlenga. Ezi nkqubo zibangelwa ngamandla elanga kunye namandla omxhuzulane.

Ubume bangaphandle boMhlaba

Inxalenye engaphandle yoMhlaba ikwenziwe ngamanqanaba aliqela adibanisa zonke izinto zomhlaba.

Indawo yasemanzini

Isakhelo samanzi

Siseti yommandla wonke wamanzi okhoyo kuqweqwe lomhlaba. Zonke iilwandle kunye neelwandle, amachibi kunye nemilambo, amanzi aphantsi komhlaba kunye neqhwa ziyafumaneka. Amanzi kwi-hydrosphere aqhubeka nokutshintshiselana. Ayihlali endaweni emisiweyo. Oku kungenxa yomjikelo wamanzi.

Kuphela ziilwandle kunye neelwandle ezithatha iikota ezintathu zomhlaba wonke, ke ukubaluleka kwawo kwinqanaba leplanethi kukhulu. Ngombulelo kwi-hydrosphere ukuba iplanethi inombala ohlaza okwesibhakabhaka.

Izixa ezikhulu zezinto ezichithakeleyo zifumaneka kwimizimba yamanzi kwaye ziphantsi kwamandla amakhulu. Amandla asebenzayo kubo ahambelana nokujikeleza komhlaba, umtsalane wenyanga kunye nemimoya. Ngenxa yazo, ukuhamba kwamanzi okufana nolwandle, amaza kunye namaza kwenzeka. Ezi ntshukumo zinempembelelo enkulu kwinqanaba lehlabathi, kuba zichaphazela izinto eziphilayo. Imozulu ikwachaphazeleka yimisinga yolwandle ngeziphumo ezinje nge-El Niño okanye iLa Niña.

Ngokubhekisele kumanzi amatsha okanye amazwekazi, sinokuthi abaluleke kakhulu ekusebenzeni kweplanethi. Kungenxa yokuba zenza ezona meko zinokumelana nomhlaba.

Emoya

Umaleko womoya

Umoya Ngumaleko weegesi ezingqonge uMhlaba uphela kwaye zibalulekile ukuze ubomi buphuhle. Ioksijini yimo yegesi yobomi njengoko siyazi. Ukongeza, uninzi lweegesi zinceda ekucoceni imitha yelanga enokubulala izinto eziphilayo kunye nezinto eziphilayo.

I-atmospheric yona yahlulwe yangamacandelo ahlukeneyo, nganye inobude obahlukeneyo, umsebenzi kunye nokwakhiwa.

Ukuqala ngo troposphere, yenye ethe ngqo kumhlaba oqinileyo woMhlaba. Kubaluleke kakhulu kuba kulapho sihlala khona kwaye leyo ibangela iimeko zemozulu ezifana nemvula.

Indawo eyahlukileyo ngumaleko olandelayo oqhubeka ngaphezulu malunga neekhilomitha ezili-10 zetroposphere. Kolu luhlu kukhuseleko lwemitha ye-UV. Ngumaleko weozone.

Imesosphere ilandela ngaphezulu kwaye iqulethe iozone.

Umgangatho womoya ibizwa ngale ndlela kuba, ngenxa yefuthe lemitha yelanga, amaqondo obushushu angadlula kwi-1500 ° C. Kuyo kukho indawo ebizwa ngokuba yi-ionosphere, apho iiathom ezininzi zilahlekelwa zii-elektroni kwaye zikwimo yeeon, zikhupha amandla enza izibane zasemantla.

Indalo

Indalo

Indawo yendalo ayingomaleko woMhlaba ngokwawo, kodwa iseti yazo zonke izinto eziphilayo ezikhoyo. Zonke izinto eziphilayo ezihlala kwiplanethi yethu zenza i-biosphere. Ke ngoko, i-biosphere yinxalenye yoqweqwe lomhlaba, kodwa kunye ne-hydrosphere kunye neatmosfera.

Iimpawu zebhayoloji yile oko kubizwa ngokuba yiyantlukwano. Imalunga neendidi ezahlukeneyo zezinto eziphilayo kunye neefom zobomi ezifumaneka kwiplanethi. Ukongeza, kukho ubudlelwane bokulingana phakathi kwawo onke amacandelo e-biosphere anoxanduva lwayo yonke into ukuba isebenze ngokufanelekileyo.

Ngaba ubume bomhlaba bufana okanye bungqamene?

ubume bomhlaba

Ngombulelo kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zokufunda, kuyaziwa ukuba ingaphakathi leplanethi yethu yahlukile. Yakhiwe kwimimandla egxile kwiipropathi ezahlukeneyo. Iindlela zokufunda zezi zilandelayo:

  • Iindlela ngqo: Zizo ezo zibandakanya ukuqaphela ukufunda iipropathi kunye nolwakhiwo lwamatye enza umhlaba. Onke amatye anokuchukunyiswa ngokuthe ngqo kumphezulu ukuze akwazi ukuzazi zonke iipropathi. Ndiyabulela oku, kwiilebhu zonke iimpawu zamatye ezenza uqweqwe lomhlaba ziqikelelwa. Ingxaki kukuba ezi zifundo zithe ngqo zinokwenziwa kuphela ukuya kuthi ga kwi-15 yeekhilomitha ubunzulu.
  • Iindlela ezingangqalanga: ngabo bakhonza ukutolikwa kwedatha ukufumanisa ukuba ingaphakathi loMhlaba linjani. Nangona singenakho ukufikelela kuzo ngokuthe ngqo, siyakwazi ukubulela elingaphakathi kufundo kunye nohlalutyo lweepropathi ezinje ngobuninzi, ubutsalane, amandla omxhuzulane kunye namaza enyikima. Ngaphandle kohlalutyo lweemeteorites ukwakheka okungaphakathi komhlaba nako kunokugqitywa.

Phakathi kweendlela ezingangqalanga ezikhoyo ezikhoyo zokwenza ubume bangaphakathi bomhlaba ngamaza enyikima. Ukufundwa kwesantya samaza kunye nokuhamba kwawo kusivumele ukuba sazi ingaphakathi loMhlaba, kokubini komzimba kunye nolwakhiwo. Kwaye kunjalo indlela aziphethe ngayo la maza ayatshintsha ngokuxhomekeke kwiimpawu nakubunjani bamatye bayadlula. Xa kukho indawo yotshintsho phakathi kwezinto, ibizwa ngokuba kukuyekiswa.

Ukusuka kulo lonke olu lwazi, kulandela ukuba ingaphakathi loMhlaba li-heterogeneous kwaye lenziwe ngendlela yemimandla egxile kwiipropathi ezahlukeneyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nobume boMhlaba kunye neempawu zawo.


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