Kutheni kuqhuma intaba-mlilo?

kutheni i-volcano iqhuma kwaye iyingozi

Iintaba-mlilo kunye nogqabhuko-dubulo ziye zayinto abantu abaye bayoyika ubomi babo bonke. Idla ngokuyonakalisa kakhulu kwaye, kuxhomekeke kuhlobo logqabhuko-dubulo enalo, inokutshabalalisa isixeko siphela. Baninzi abantu abazibuzayo kutheni kugqabhuka intaba-mlilo.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuze sikuxelele ukuba kutheni intaba-mlilo igqabhuka, zithini iimpawu zayo kunye nobungozi bolu gqabhuko-dubulo.

Ukwakhiwa kweentaba-mlilo

udaka luqukuqela

Nangona kubonakala kunoxolo kumphezulu, umbindi wentaba-mlilo sisihogo sokwenene. Iintanda zayo zizele yimagma eshushu kangangokuba itshisa yonke into esendleleni yayo kwaye iqulethe iigesi ezinokuba yityhefu ezinyibilikayo kuyo.

Sibhekisela kwintaba-mlilo efumaneka kubunzulu bentaba-mlilo njengemagma.. Ibizwa ngokuba yilava xa iphuma. Kwicandelo elilandelayo, siya kuchaza ngokweenkcukacha ukuba yintoni i-lava eyenziwe ngayo kwaye zeziphi iintlobo ze-lava ezikhoyo.

Ukongeza, i-lava yenziwe ngeeminerali zodidi lwe-silicate eziphuma kwiintaba-mlilo kumaqondo obushushu aphakathi kwe-900 kunye ne-1000 ºC. Ngokuxhomekeke kumxholo wayo we-silica (SiO2), sinokufumana iindidi ezimbini ze-lava:

  • Ulwelo lweLava: Inomxholo ophantsi we-silica. Olu hlobo lwe-lava luncinci kwaye luhamba ngokukhawuleza.
  • Ilava eneasidi: Zityebile kwi-silica. Zine-viscosity ephezulu kwaye zihamba kancinci.

Ukongeza kwi-silica, i-lava nayo iqulethe iigesi ezinyityilisiweyo. Ngokuyintloko ngumphunga wamanzi kwaye, kumlinganiselo omncinci, i-carbon dioxide (CO2), i-sulphur dioxide (SO2), i-hydrogen sulfide (H2S), i-carbon monoxide (CO), i-hydrochloric acid (HCl), i-helium (He), kunye ne-hydrogen ( H).

Sekunjalo, kufuneka uqaphele ukuba ukubunjwa kweekhemikhali ze-lava kunokwahluka ngokuxhomekeke kuhlobo lwe-magma kunye ne-volcanic, kwaye kwakhona, iintlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-lava zingabangela ukuqhuma okwahluke kakhulu, njengoko sichaza ngezantsi.

Kutheni kuqhuma intaba-mlilo?

ikhemistri yentaba-mlilo

Ayibonakali kwiliso lomntu, i-magma iqokelelana ngaphakathi kwentaba-mlilo. Njengomlilo otshabalalisayo, yanyibilikisa amatye ayingqongileyo. Xa i-magma eyaneleyo ikhula, iqala ukukhangela indlela yokuphuma kwaye iqala ukuya phezulu.

Xa i-magma inyuka iye kwezona ndawo ziphakamileyo zentaba-mlilo, itshabalalisa ilitye kwaye idale uxinzelelo olugqithileyo olugqwesa umhlaba. Iigesi ezinyibilikayo kwi-magma zikhutshwa ngenxa yokuqhekeka kwelitye. Ezi ziquka: umphunga wamanzi (H2O), i-carbon dioxide (CO2), i-sulphur dioxide (SO2), kunye ne-hydrochloric acid (HCl).

Iintlobo zogqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo

Uhlobo logqabhuko-dubulo luxhomekeke kwimilo kunye nobukhulu bentaba-mlilo, kunye nemilinganiselo enxulumene neegesi, ulwelo (i-lava) kunye nezinto eziqinileyo ezikhutshiweyo. Ezi ziintlobo zerhashalala ezikhoyo kunye neempawu zazo:

Ukuqhuma kweHawaii

Ziyimpawu zolwelo lwemagmas yokwakheka okusisiseko (ingakumbi i-basaltic) kwaye ziqhelekile kwezinye iziqithi zolwandle ezifana neZiqithi zaseHawaii, apho zifumana khona igama lazo.

Ziziqhushumbo zodaka olumanzi kakhulu kunye negesi encinci, ngoko azigqabhuki lula. Iindlu ezinkulu zentaba-mlilo zihlala zithambekile kwaye zimile okwekhaka. I-magma iphakama ngokukhawuleza kwaye ukuhamba kwenzeka ngokukhawuleza.

Ingozi ebangelwa zezi ntlobo zogqabhuko-dubulo kukuba zinokuhamba umgama weekhilomitha eziliqela kwaye zidale imililo kwaye zonakalise iziseko zophuhliso ezidibana nazo.

Ukuqhuma kweStrombolian

I-magma ihlala i-basaltic kunye ne-fluid, ukunyuka ngokubanzi ngokucothayo kwaye kuxutywe namaqamza erhasi amakhulu ukuya kuthi ga kwi-10 yeemitha ukuphakama. Ziyakwazi ukuvelisa ukuqhuma kwexesha.

Ngokuqhelekileyo azivelisi iiplamu ezijikelezayo, kunye ne-pyroclastic debris, echaza i-ballistic trajectory, isasazwa kwindawo yeekhilomitha eziliqela malunga nombhobho. Ngokuqhelekileyo azinabundlobongela kakhulu, ngoko ingozi yazo iphantsi, kwaye ziyakwazi ukuvelisa i-lava cones. Olu gqabhuko-dubulo lwenzeka kwiintaba-mlilo zeZiqithi iAeolian (eItali) naseVestmannaeyjar (eIceland).

Ukuqhuma kweVulcan

Olu lugqabhuko-dubulo oluphakathi olubangelwa kukuvuleka kwemijelo yentaba-mlilo evalwe ludaka. Uqhushumbo lwenzeka rhoqo ngemizuzu okanye iiyure ezimbalwa. Zixhaphakile kwiintaba-mlilo ezikhupha i-magma yokwakheka okuphakathi.

Ubude beentsika akufunekanga budlule kwiikhilomitha ezili-10. Ngokuqhelekileyo bangamaqhakuva anomngcipheko omncinci.

Ukuqhuma kukaPlinian

Ziyi-gas-rich eruptions ethi, xa ichithwa kwi-magma, ibangele ukuchithwa kwayo kwi-pyroclasts (ilitye le-pumice kunye nomlotha). Lo mxube weemveliso ushiya umlomo kunye nezinga eliphezulu lokunyuka.

La maqhakuva aqhuma ngokuthe ngcembe, zombini kwinani kunye nesantya. Zibandakanya iimagma ze-siliceous ezibonakala kakhulu. Ngokomzekelo, ugqabhuko-dubulo lweNtaba iVesuvius ngo-AD 79.

Basemngciphekweni omkhulu ngenxa yokuba ikholamu yogqabhuko-dubulo iphindaphindeka kwaye ifikelele kwiindawo eziphakamileyo (nakwi-stratosphere) kwaye ibangela ukuwa kothuthu olubalulekileyo oluchaphazela iradiyasi enkulu kakhulu esebenzayo (ngamawaka eekhilomitha ezikwere).

Ukuqhuma kweSurtseyan

Zizigqabhuko-dubulo zemagma ezidibana nezixa ezikhulu zamanzi olwandle. Olu gqabhuko-dubulo lwadala iziqithi ezitsha, ezinjengogqabhuko-dubulo lweNtaba iSulzi kumazantsi eIceland, eyathi yenza isiqithi esitsha ngowe-1963.

Le misebenzi yokuqhuma ibonakala ngokudubula okuthe ngqo, okuvelisa amafu amakhulu omphunga omhlophe kunye namafu amnyama e-basaltic pyroclasts.

Ukuqhuma kwe-Hydrovolcanic

Ukongeza kwi-volcanic kunye ne-plinian esele ikhankanyiwe (apho ukungenelela kwamanzi kubonakala kuqinisekisiwe), kukho ezinye iipropati eziphantsi kwamanzi (oko kukuthi, zinegalelo elincinci lezinto ezivuthayo) ezibangelwa ukunyuka kwe-magma.

Ziziqhushumbo zomphunga owenziwe elityeni ngaphezu komthombo wobushushu magma, kunye neziphumo ezibi ngenxa yokutshatyalaliswa kweflagration kunye nokuhamba kodaka.

Ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo lunokuhlala ixesha elingakanani?

Njengoko sele sibonile kule mihla, kunzima ukuqikelela ukuba ziya kuba njani iintaba-mlilo. Sekunjalo, ukuze uqikelelo lwazo luchane kangangoko kunokwenzeka, izazi ngentaba-mlilo zihlola ikharbon diokside ne<em>sulphur dioxide ekhutshwayo.

Iinyikima zinokubonisa ukuba i-magma inyuka ngoqweqwe loMhlaba.. Ngokuphonononga le miqondiso, izazinzulu zinokufumanisa ukuba intaba-mlilo iyaqhubeka.

Ngokubhekiselele kwixesha lokuqhuma, kuxhomekeke kubungakanani be-magma equlethwe kuyo, okunzima ukukwazi ngenxa yokuba iipokotho zezinto ze-magma zinokuba zizondla izinto ezibuyayo ezivela kumaleko asezantsi eplanethi. Ekuphela kwemithombo eshiyekileyo ukuze iingcali ziqikelele ubude bexesha logqabhuko-dubulo kukufunda ingxelo yokwakheka komhlaba nogqabhuko-dubulo lwangaphambili.

Kwenzeka ntoni xa udaka oluphuma kwintaba-mlilo lufikelela elwandle?

kutheni kugqabhuka intaba-mlilo

Iikhompawundi ezahlukeneyo zichithwa emanzini olwandle, kuquka i-sodium chloride (NaCl) kunye ne-magnesium chloride (MgCl2). Kwakhona khumbula ukuba imalunga ne-20 ºC.

Ngoko xa udaka ludibana nebrine, uthotho lweemichiza ezenzekayo nemiphumo eyintlekele. Akunjalo kuphela amafu amakhulu eegesi eziveliswayo, ngakumbi i-hydrochloric acid (HCl) kunye nomphunga wamanzi (H2O). Ngapha koko, ukothuka kwe-thermal kukhokelela kwi-vitrification yediphu yokuphosa. Ngokuqiniswa ngokukhawuleza, ukudubula kunokwenzeka.

Ukongezelela, ezi gesi zikhankanywe ngasentla zinokuba yingozi ebantwini. Ezona ziphumo zixhaphakileyo kukucaphuka kwesikhumba, amehlo kunye nomgudu wokuphefumula.

Ekugqibeleni iintaba-mlilo ziyinxalenye yembonakalo yomhlaba, kwaye kufuneka sifunde ukuhlala nazo, nokuba siyathanda okanye asithandi. Ngoko ke, kuyimfuneko ukwandisa ukuqokelela ulwazi malunga nokubunjwa kweentaba-mlilo kunye neempendulo zemichiza ezenzeka ngexesha logqabhuko-mlilo.

Ngale ndlela, ulwazi lwenzululwazi kunye nophuhliso lwetekhnoloji ngamahlakani ethu. Simele sisebenzise inkcazelo asinika yona ukuze sibone indlela nesizathu sokuba iintaba-mlilo ziqhume ngayo size siphephe iingozi ezizibangelayo kangangoko kunokwenzeka.


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