Izaqhwithi, kutheni zibizwa njalo?

Ukukhawuleza-ukuhla kwe-1950-2007_570x375_scaled_cropp

Izaqhwithi ezahlasela amazantsi-ntshona eMelika phakathi kuka-1950 no-2007

Ezi ntsuku zisemva kwenkanyamba Haiyan o U-Yolanda (njengoko kusaziwa njalo kwiiPhilippines) uya kube evuse umdla kubafundi abaninzi apho avela khona loo magama, njani kwaye ngubani omisela kwaye ngasiphi na isizathu kwezinye iimeko, njengale, banamagama angaphezu kwelinye. Abanye banokude bacinge, kutheni iindudumo okanye iinkanyamba ezinkulu abathi ngamanye amaxesha bazivelise njengaleyo kwaye zigcinelwe xa befika kwinkanyamba okanye kwimozulu yesiphango?

Ukutyhubela imbali, iinkanyamba zifumene amagama ahlukeneyo. Ukwahlulahlulwa kwabo kutshintshile ukutyhubela iminyaka ukufikelela kwinkqubo yoluhlu olusetyenzisiweyo namhlanje phantse kuzo zonke iinkonzo zemozulu zehlabathi (WMO, NHC, PAGASA, njl.

Kangangamakhulu eminyaka, iinkanyamba zathiywa ngongcwele wosuku ezenzeka ngalo ("San Felipe" ngo-1876 ePuerto Rico) .Ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, usosayensi wezulu waseAustralia wabathiya ngezopolitiko ababengazithandi. iinkanyamba. Ngexesha leMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi, amagama ababhinqileyo abhekiswa kubo. Emva koko, i-United States, yayiceba ukuyibiza ngegama ngokulandelelana kwefonetiki, nangona ukwaziswa kwealfabhethi yefonetiki yamazwe aphesheya kukhokelele ekubuyeni kumagama ababhinqileyo.

Phambi ko-1950 i-United States Military Meteorological Service yayijongene nokwabela inani kwisaqhwithi sethropikhi. Umzekelo, inkanyamba yesihlanu yetropiki yonyaka we-1932 yeNkanyamba yabizwa ngokuba yiNombolo 5. Kwiminyaka elandelayo iselfowuni yomkhosi oonobumba (Able, Baker, Charlie, njl.) Yayisetyenziselwa ukunika amagama.

Kamva, ebutsheni bowe-1953, iinkqwithela zetropiki zathiywa amagama abantu ababhinqileyo. Amagama adweliswe ngokulandelelana kwealfabhethi, enika isaqhwithi sokuqala sonyaka oshushu esinegama eliqala ngo-A.

Ngo-1978, amagama amabhinqa nabesilisa afakwe kwiluhlu lwamagama e-North Pacific. Ngo-1979 uluhlu lwamagama e-Atlantic Basin lwanda, kubandakanya namagama abesilisa nabasetyhini. Namhlanje, xa ukuphazamiseka kwetropiki kukhula kwisaqhwithi setropic kunye nemimoya engaphezulu kwe-63 km / h (39 mph) iZiko leNkanyamba leSizwe (NHC) liyinika igama.

Ukufumanisa ukuba ngawaphi amagama aza kusetyenziswa, amazwe angamalungu oMbutho weMeteorological weHlabathi (i-WMO) ahlala ephonononga uluhlu, kubandakanya amagama aqhelekileyo kubantu abathetha isiNgesi, abathetha iSpanish nabathetha isiFrentshi. Umyalelo wamagama abesilisa nabasetyhini atshintsha unyaka nonyaka. umzekelo, ngo-1995 uluhlu lwaqala ngo-Allison kwaye ngo-1996 lwenziwa no-Arthur.

Okwangoku, kukho izintlu ezi-6 zamagama enkanyamba yetropiki, amagama angama-21 kwiziphepho zeAtlantic kunye nama-24 ezizaqhwithi kumantla mpuma wePacific. KwiiPhilippines yiPAGASA (kwiPhilippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Administration) ngo-2001, isebenzisa uluhlu lwamagama angama-25. Amagama kufuneka abe mafutshane kwaye aqondakale lula, ungalibali ukuba anokuchaphazela amazwe amaninzi. Olu luhlu lusetyenziswa minyaka le ngokujikeleza (uluhlu olusetyenziswe ngo-2011 lwalulolunye ngo-2005, ngaphandle kwamagama asusweyo).

Kwimeko apho onke amagama oluhlu asetyenzisiweyo, agqitha iinkanyamba ezingama-21 (ezingama-24 kumntla mpuma wePasifiki), aba balandelayo baqala ukubizwa ngamagama ngoonobumba besiGrike: i-alpha, i-beta, njalo njalo. Kwimeko yePhilippines, uPAGASA usebenzisa uluhlu oluncedisayo lwamagama xa edlula i-25.

Ukusuka kolu luhlu, ngamanye amaxesha xa isaqhwithi sitshabalalisile kwaye sabulala abantu abaninzi, igama lakhe licetyiswa ukuba lisuswe. Oku kubonisa intlonipho kumaxhoba kukwanceda ukunqanda ukudideka kwiinkampani zeinshurensi, eendaba, njl. Umzekelo ngo-2005 i-Katrina okanye i- buntlabathi Ngo-2012 ngamanye amagama anjengoAndrew, Bob, Camille, David, Dennis, njl.

Ukuba isaqhwithi esitshisayo esivela kwiAtlantic sifika kwiPasifiki, sinikwa igama elitsha. Kwaye kwimeko yeNkanyamba uHaiyan, yayiziiarhente ezimbini ezahlukeneyo eza nala magama mabini ahlukeneyo. Uqhwithela u-Yolanda ngoyena usekwe yi-PAGASA.

Iinkcukacha ezithe xaxe - Tacloban, isaqhwithi seHaiyan emhlabeniINkanyamba uSandy, isikhumbuzo sonyaka omnye: kuninzi ukwenza, kuninzi ukufundaUnyaka ka-2013 uya kuba ngowesixhenxe ukufudumala kuba kukho iirekhodi

Isalathiso - NOAA


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