I-Rainbow ephindwe kabini

Umnyama ophindwe kabini esibhakabhakeni

Enye yezinto ezintle ezibonakalayo ezenzekayo xa iyeka ukunetha ngumnyama. Umnyama yinto ebonwa ngamehlo eyenzeka xa ukukhanya kwelanga kudlula kumathontsi amanzi ajinga kwiatmosfera. Nangona kunjalo, kwezinye iimeko a kabini Rainbow.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba kutheni i-rainbow ephindwe kabini yenziwa, zeziphi iimpawu zayo kunye nemibandela ebalulekileyo.

Ukwakheka komnyama

kabini Rainbow

Ukubunjwa komnyama kubandakanya amanyathelo amaninzi:

  • Ukuphindaphinda: Ukukhanya okumhlophe okuvela elangeni, okwenene okwenziwe ngumxube wemibala, kungena kwithontsi lamanzi. Ekungeneni kwi-drop, ukukhanya kugoba okanye i-refracts ngenxa yokwahlukana kwesantya sokukhanya emoyeni nasemanzini.
  • Umboniso wangaphakathi: Ngaphakathi kwethontsi yamanzi, ukukhanya kubonakala kwiindonga zangaphakathi zokuhla. Oku kubonakalisa kubangela ukuba ukukhanya kuphuke kwimibala yayo nganye ngenxa yokusabalalisa, ukwahlula imibala ye-spectrum ebonakalayo, njengeprism.
  • Ukuphindaphinda kwakhona: Emva kokubonakaliswa kwangaphakathi, ukukhanya kushiya ithontsi lamanzi kwaye kuphinde kuhlanjululwe kwakhona njengoko kudlula emanzini ukuya emoyeni. Ukukhanya kuvela kwii-engile ezithile, kuxhomekeke kubude bayo. Oku kubangela ukuba imibala eyahlukileyo yahluke ngakumbi.
  • Ukwakheka komnyama: Imitha yokukhanya eyahlulahlulwe yaba nemibala isasazeke ngokwepatheni ejikelezayo, idala into esiyaziyo njengomnyama. Umnyama ubonakala njengesangqa esibhakabhakeni ngenxa yokumila kwamathontsi amanzi asebenza njengeeprism zendalo.

Kufanelekile ukukhankanya ukuba ukukhanya ngokwenene kubonakaliswe kwaye kunqanyulwe ngaphakathi kwamathontsi amanzi amaninzi kwi-atmosfera, ngalinye linegalelo ekubunjweni komnyama esiwubonayo. Umnyama ngumbono wemibala ngenxa yokuqhekeka kokukhanya okumhlophe kumacandelo awo ahlukeneyo: obomvu, i-orange, i-yellow, eluhlaza, eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, i-indigo kunye ne-violet.

Imvula ngokungathandabuzekiyo yeyona nto ibonakalayo yendalo, Zenzeka xa ukukhanya kwelanga kudlula kumathontsi amanzi ngexesha lemvula. Ukukhanya okusasazekayo kwahlulahlulwe kwimibala eyahlukeneyo, efana neprism. Ukuqwalasela umnyama, iimeko ezithile kufuneka zifezekiswe: ubukho bemvula kunye nokukhanya kwelanga, kwaye umbonisi kufuneka ame phakathi kwezi zibini kunye nelanga ngasemva kunye nemvula ngaphambili. Ukongeza, ukukhanya kufuneka kubonakale kwi-engile ye-42º kumathontsi, ngoko awafane abonwe emini yasemini kwaye aqhele ukuvela ngentsasa nangemva kwemini.

I-Rainbow ephindwe kabini

Umxube wemibala

Xa isibane sokukhanya esimhlophe singena kwithontsi, imibala yalo eyahlukahlukeneyo isasazwa kwii-engile ezahlukeneyo. Ngenxa yesi siganeko, ukukhanya okumhlophe kunqanyuliwe kwaye siyakwazi ukubona imibala nganye eyenza oko. Ithoni ebomvu yeyona igoba kancinane, ngelixa eminye imibala igoba ngakumbi nangakumbi de ifikelele kwi-violet. Ngaloo ndlela, i-beam yokukhanya okumhlophe iguqulwa ibe yingqokelela yemitha, nganye ibonisa umbala owahlukileyo ohlukileyo njengoko uhamba ngaphakathi kwethontsi. Le mitha emva koko idibana nomphezulu wangaphakathi wethontsi kwaye ibonakaliswe ngasemva, ngokungathi umphezulu wethontsi sisipili. Imitha idibana nomphezulu wokuhla kwakhona ngaphambi kokuphuma, kwaye nganye ngoku ineengile eyahlukileyo kunye nombala. Le nkqubo, ngokuphindaphindiweyo ngamathontsi angenakubalwa, yinto evelisa ii-arcs ezahlukeneyo zombala ezidibanisa ukwenza umnyama.

Xa ukukhanya kukhanya kwaye kubonakalisa amathontsi amanzi, into entle eyaziwa ngokuba ngumnyama ophindwe kabini kwenzeka. Esi siganeko siphawulwa ngee-arches ezimbini ezinemibala eyahlukeneyo, i-arch yangaphakathi icace ngakumbi kuneyangaphandle. Imibala ye-rainbow ephindwe kabini, ngokulandelelana, ibomvu, i-orange, iphuzi, eluhlaza, eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, i-indigo kunye ne-violet. Umnyama ophindwe kabini yinto enqabileyo, kodwa xa umntu enethamsanqa ngokwaneleyo lokuyingqina, ngokwenene ngumbono onomtsalane wendalo.

Ngamanye amaxesha akubonakali imvula enye kodwa ibe mibini, kunye nemibala kumalungiselelo ahlukeneyo kwaye enye ingaphezulu kwenye. Umnyama wesibini wenziwa xa ukukhanya kwelanga kugqobhoza emazantsi ethontsi lemvula kuze kugqabhuze ngaphakathi kabini ngaphambi kokuba kufike emehlweni ethu. Ngenxa yokudubuleka kubini, amaza okukhanya awela aze ashiye ithontsi ngendlela echaseneyo nolo lomnyama wokuqala. Lo mnyama wesibini awubonakalisi kangako ngenxa yokuba amanye amandla ayachithwa ngokugqabhuka ngakunye.

Xa imitha yokukhanya igqabhuza kabini iphuma kumathontsi emvula, igubungela umgama omkhulu, nto leyo ekhokelela kwi-engile enkulu yokuphuma. Kungenxa yoko le nto umnyama wesibini ubonwa uphakame kunowokuqala. Ukongezelela, imibala yomnyama wesibini iya kubonakala ngokulandelelana: obomvu ezantsi kunye nomfusa phezulu.

Alexander Bands

imbonakalo yomnyama

Sibhekisa ngokukodwa kwinxalenye yesibhakabhaka ebonakala phakathi komnyama, endaweni yokuhlanganisana komculo. Le ndawo, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-Alexander Bands, Kumnyama ngokucacileyo kunesibhakabhaka siphela kwaye iphakathi kwemvula yokuqala neyesibini.

Umnyama oyintloko okanye isibhakabhaka ngaphakathi kwawo senziwe yimitha yokukhanya evela kumathontsi emvula kanye. Okwangoku, i-arc yesibini okanye isibhakabhaka sangaphandle senziwe yimisebe ebonakaliswe kabini kwaye iguqulwe. Imimandla yesibhakabhaka apho amathontsi emvula akhoyo kunye nemigca yokubona phakathi kwee-arcs ezimbini ayikwazi ukubonakalisa konke ukukhanya kwiliso lombonisi. Ngenxa yoko, ezi ndawo zibonakala zimnyama. Ngo-200 AD, uAlexander waseAphrodisias waba ngowokuqala ukuchaza isenzeko esibizwa ngegama lakhe ngoku.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-rainbow ephindwe kabini kunye nokubunjwa kwayo.


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