Izikhukula eTshayina

imeko yomonakalo

Ngenxa yokutshintsha kwemozulu, iziganeko zemozulu ezimandundu ezifana nezikhukhula ziyenzeka ngokuphindaphindiweyo kunye nokuqina. I izikhukula eTshayina zisanda kakhulu. Sele bebangele umonakalo omkhulu kwezoqoqosho kwaye babangele ukufa kwabantu abaninzi kwiminyaka yakutshanje. Ukwenza oku, amaTshayina aye aqulunqa amacebo athile ukuze akwazi ukunqanda ezi zikhukula zibulalayo.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga nezikhukhula e-China, umonakalo obangelwayo kwaye yiyiphi imilinganiselo kunye nezicwangciso ezenziwa ngurhulumente.

Izikhukula eTshayina

izikhukula eTshayina

Uphuhliso olumangalisayo lokufudukela kwabantu ezidolophini eTshayina kumashumi eminyaka akutshanje, kudityaniswe nezinto ezikhethekileyo zejoloji kunye nemozulu, kudale umxube obulalayo wezikhukula zasedolophini ezibangela izigidi zamaxhoba, amakhulu amawaka okufa kunye nelahleko enkulu yezoqoqosho. Amanyathelo amaninzi athathiweyo ukulwa nezikhukhula. Ziintoni kwaye zithini iziphumo zazo? kwinqaku elilandelayo.

Ukusukela ngo-1949, ngaphezu kwe-50 yezikhukhula ezinkulu ngenxa yezaqhwithi, izaqhwithi okanye amaza achaphazele iindawo ezahlukeneyo zommandla waseTshayina.. Ezi ziganeko zakhokelela urhulumente ukuba aphuhlise izicwangciso zokuthintela ukunciphisa ilahleko yabantu kunye nempahla, ukulungelelanisa inkqubo yobudlelwane phakathi kwezikhukhula kunye nophuhliso lwentlalo zoqoqosho.

Imbali inesisa xa kufikwa kwiintlekele ezinxulumene nezikhukula. Ngokomzekelo, ngowe-1931, uWuhan wagutyungelwa zizikhukula kangangeentsuku ezingaphezu kwe-100 yaye umkhukula washiya abantu abangaphezu kwama-780 000 bengenamakhaya waza wabulala abangama-32 600. Esinye isikhukula esiyingozi senzeka kumlambo iHan ngo-1983, sabulala abantu abangaphezu kwama-870 saza santywilisela isixeko saseAnkang. Iimitha ezisi-8 ngaphantsi komphakamo wolwandle.

Ukusukela ngo-2000, i-China iye yafumana izikhukula ezinkulu kanye kwiminyaka emibini ubuncinane. Ezinye zeemeko ezidume kakhulu ziquka izikhukhula ngoJulayi 2003, xa isiqhwithi esingazange sibonwe ngaphambili sabetha iNanjing, ebangela imvula yemihla ngemihla engaphezu kwe-309mm - phantse kabini imvula yonyaka kumbindi weChile - kumakhulu okufa, kunye namaxhoba e-1 yezigidi.

NgoJulayi 2007, IChongqing kunye neJinan zabethwa sesona saqhwithi esikhulu kwiminyaka eyi-100, yabulala abantu abayi-103, kwaye ngo-2010, iSichuan yashiya abantu abangaphezu kwama-800.000 bengenamakhaya kwaye yabulala abantu abayi-150. Iinkcukacha zibonisa ukuba phantse i-80% yezikhukhula azenzeki emaphandleni, kodwa ezidolophini.

Ngeli xesha, iingcali zokuhlala ezidolophini ziyazi kakuhle ukuba izixeko zanamhlanje azinamandla ngokwaneleyo okumelana neemvula ezinkulu kwaye zithi intlekele "ephakathi" inokulibazisa ukuphuhliswa kwesixeko iminyaka engamashumi amabini.

Amaqhinga okuthintela izikhukhula eTshayina

umonakalo wezikhukula

Izikhukula zasezidolophini ngokubanzi zibangela umonakalo ongakumbi kwaye zichaphazela abantu abaninzi, kwaye umonakalo kunye neengxwelerha zilingana nesantya sokukhula kwesixeko, ngoko ke imingcipheko iyanda minyaka le njengoko ukufudukela kwabantu ezidolophini kuhambela phambili, okuxhalabisa ngakumbi ukuba kunokunyamezela. Ukubeka emngciphekweni uzinzo lwentlalo noqoqosho lwemimandla ehlala amashumi okanye amakhulu ezigidi zabantu.

Ukuphelisa eli bali libuhlungu, ngo-2003 i-Ofisi yoMphathiswa weMithombo yaManzi yaseTshayina yenza isindululo kurhulumente omkhulu ukuba athathe inyathelo kulo mbandela, okubangele utshintsho olusuka kumgaqo-nkqubo ongasebenziyo wokulawula izikhukhula ukuya kumgaqo-nkqubo wokuthintela izikhukhula.

Oku kukhokelele kulawulo lwemisebenzi yemveliso kummandla wezikhukula, uphuhliso lwezicwangciso zothintelo kunye nothotho lwamanyathelo okuqinisekisa ukhuseleko lwenkitha yabantu. Nangona kunjalo, kuqikelelwa ukuba izixeko ezingama-355 kwezingama-642 apho ulawulo lwezikhukhula kungowona msebenzi -55% - zisebenzisa imigangatho yolawulo lwezandyondyo engaphantsi kunaleyo yasekwa ngurhulumente omkhulu.

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, i-China iye yazisa ingcamango "yolawulo lomngcipheko" kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo emitsha ecetywayo. Ngoko ke, ukusuka ekuthembeleni kumanyathelo esakhiwo ukunciphisa umonakalo wezikhukhula ukuya kukulungelelanisa imilinganiselo yesakhiwo kunye neyokungalungelelani, uMphathiswa weMithombo yaManzi uphuhlise iQhinga leSizwe loLawulo lweZikhukula ngowama-2005.

Into ebizwa ngokuthi "iSicwangciso soLawulo lweSikhukhula saseTshayina" sinokuchazwa nje ngokuba: urhulumente waseTshayina uthatha isigqibo sokulawula izikhukhula ngokusekelwe kumngcipheko, egxininisa amanyathelo angekho sakhiwo, ngakumbi ulawulo, uqoqosho, iteknoloji kunye nezemfundo (njengeenkqubo zokwenza izigqibo eziphambili , ukuthintela iinkqubo, izicwangciso zokunciphisa iintlekele kunye ne-inshurensi yokulawula izikhukhula) kunye nokuququzelela ukuphunyezwa kwezicwangciso zokuphumeza imilinganiselo yesakhiwo, efana ne ukomelezwa kwamadama, ukulawulwa kwamaqondo emilambo kunye nokwakhiwa kwamadama, ukufumana iinzuzo ezipheleleyo kunye nexesha elide.

Amanqaku abalulekileyo

umonakalo wezikhukula eTshayina

Imisebenzi emithathu yesicwangciso-qhinga 'yolawulo' lwezikhukhula yile:

  • Ukwakha iiprojekthi zolondolozo lwamanzi ukunciphisa iintlekele ngokufanelekileyo. Iprojekthi enkulu yeDama lemiwonyo emithathu ibalasele kule projekthi.
  • Lawula imisebenzi yabantu ukunciphisa umonakalo wezikhukhula kwicandelo lemveliso.
  • Ukusetyenziswa ngcono kwamanzi ezikhukula kunye nokusetyenziswa kobutyebi bamanzi aseleyo.

Ukuphumeza esi sicwangciso, urhulumente waseTshayina uchonge undoqo wenkxaso yenkqubela phambili yesayensi kunye nobuchwepheshe, ukuqinisekisa inkxaso-mali eyaneleyo kunye noluntu lokunciphisa iintlekele. Okokugqibela, ukusebenzisa izikhukhula ezingenakuphepheka ezidolophini ukujongana nokunqongophala kwamanzi okubangelwa kukufudukela kwabantu ezidolophini ngokukhawuleza ngumzekelo omhle weqhinga laseChina lokungagcini nje ngokufuna ukunciphisa izikhukula kunye neempembelelo zazo ezimbi, kodwa nokufuna ukufumana inzuzo kwezi ntlekele zendalo zokwenyani.

 

USenator Alejandro Navarro uthe iChile kufuneka ilandele umzekelo waseTshayina, "iqonde ukuba kufuneka ilindele amandla endalo ngokusebenzisa isicwangciso esipheleleyo sokuba, ngaphezu kokwakha amadama kunye neminye imisebenzi, sinikele ingqalelo ekufundiseni abantu kunye nokuphunyezwa kwezicwangciso zokunciphisa kunye nokunye. amanyathelo. »

Ipalamente yongeze yathi: "Akukho zikhukula zilindelweyo apha kwaye kukho ubungqina obuninzi boku, njengakuMjelo wasePapen kwiinyanga ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo, apho kungekho nto yenziwayo ukulawula amanzi. Imvula, eyabangela ukuba umjelo uphuphume kwaye ubulale. Amakhulu abantu, okokuqala uRhulumente kufuneka ahlawule iintsapho kwaye emva koko abeke isicwangciso ukuze olu hlobo lwamashwa lungenzeki kwakhona ", uvale ngelo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nezikhukula eTshayina kwaye uyakuxabisa ukuzenza.


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