istratovolcano

ntaba saint helena

Ehlabathini kukho iindidi ezahlukeneyo zeentaba-mlilo ngokweempawu nemvelaphi yazo. Omnye wabo ngu istratovolcano. I-Stratovolcano yaziwa njengeentaba-mlilo eziphakamileyo ezinobude obuphezulu, ezenziwe zizixa ezahlukahlukeneyo zokumila kodaka lwentaba-mlilo, ukutshintshwa kwe-pyroclastics eveliswe ngamaxesha okutshintshana kwentshukumo yentaba-mlilo, kunye nemilambo yodaka olumanzi kunye nothuthu lwentaba-mlilo.

Kweli nqaku siza kugxila ekuxeleleni ukuba zeziphi iimpawu, imvelaphi kunye nokhetho lwe-stratovolcano.

Iimpawu eziphambili

umncedisi

Ii-Stratovolcanoes ziphawulwa ngeeprofayili zazo eziphakamileyo kunye nokuvelisa ugqabhuko-dubulo ngamaxesha athile. Udaka oluphuma kwezi ntaba-mlilo lubonakala lubonakala yaye luqina njengoko luphola ngaphambi kokuba luhambe imigama emide. Umthombo wayo we-magmatic ucebile kwi-silica okanye i-asidi kwaye iqulethe i-dacite, i-rhyolite kunye ne-andesite. Uninzi lwezi ntaba-mlilo zingaphezu kweemitha ezingama-2.500 XNUMX ukuphakama.

Iingcali zentaba-mlilo zikhethe ukusebenzisa igama elithi "stratovolcano" endaweni ye "volcano ehlangeneyo" edla ngokusetyenziswa ukubonisa umahluko phakathi kwezi ntaba-mlilo zimbini, kuba iintaba-mlilo zidla ngokubonakala ngokuba namaleko ezinto ezahlukahlukeneyo eziye zagqabhuka ngokwahlukileyo.

ii-stratovolcanoes ziqhelekile kwi-subduction zone geology kwaye zenzeke kwii-arcs okanye kwimixokelelwane ye-longitudinal emiphethweni yeetectonic plates. Le mida kulapho i-oceanic crust ingaphantsi kune-continental crust (njengakwi-Andes) okanye i-mid-ocean ridges (njengoko kubonakala kufuphi ne-Iceland). I-magma eyabenza bavela xa amanzi avalelwe kwii-basalts kunye neeminerali echithekile kwi-asthenosphere (ipleyiti engaphezulu yengubo yoMhlaba), ebangela ukuba iwele.

Ugqabhuko-dubulo lwe-stratovolcano

ikrakatoa stratovolcano

I-Desiccation (oko kukuthi, ukususwa ngokupheleleyo kwamanzi ngeeminerali) kwenzeka xa iimeko ezifanelekileyo zobushushu kunye noxinzelelo zikhona kwiiminerali ezithile ngenxa yokuthotywa kwepleyiti. Amanzi akumaleko asezantsi ehlisa indawo yokunyibilika yelitye elihamba phezu kwawo njengoko ekhululwa, ngoko ke ukunyibilika okungaphelelanga kwenzeka, kubonakale kuncinci kunelitye elijikelezileyo. Emva koko ikhupha i-magma nge-crust, ukukhulula iikhompawundi zamaminerali ezityebileyo kwi-silica.

IMagma yakheke kufuphi nomphezulu, njengamachibi kumagumbi e-magma, ngaphantsi kweentaba-mlilo. Uxinzelelo oluphantsi lwe-magma lunceda iigesi (isulfure, ikharbon diokside, neklorini) kwaye amanzi asebenze, njengokuvula ibhotile yesoda, ukwenza iintanda zentaba-mlilo kunye nenkunkuma ye-pyroclastic. Xa isixa esithile semagma negesi siqokelelana, uphahla lwecone yentaba-mlilo luyagqabhuka, luvelise ugqabhuko-dubulo.

Umda wolwahlulo

istratovolcano

Ithiyori yePlate tectonics ichaza ukuthotywa kwepleyiti njengolandelelwano olubangelwa kukuzika kwepleyiti enye phantsi kwenye ipleyiti yelithospheric eguqukayo. Le nkqubo yenzeka kwiindawo zokuthotywa okukhoyo ngoku kwiRingi yoMlilo yePasifiki ecaleni konxweme lwePasifiki, kwiindawo ezithile zoLwandle lweMeditera, nakunxweme lwaseIndiya nakwiAntilles eseMazantsi eIndonesia.

Imizekelo yestratovolcano

  • IiAndes zaseChile. I-Nevado Ojos del Salado yeyona ntaba-mlilo iphakamileyo emhlabeni. Le ntaba-mlilo yaseChile ikwimitha engama-6.887 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle. Intaba-mlilo iLlullaillaco ekufuphi, ekwakwiAndes yaseChile, yeyona ntaba-mlilo iphakamileyo ehlabathini kwiimitha ezingama-6.739. I-Nevado Ojos del Salado inechibi le-crater malunga ne-6.390 yeemitha ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, elinye lamachibi aphezulu, ukuba ayilona liphezulu emhlabeni. Izazinzulu zikholelwa ukuba olona gqabhuko-dubulo lwamva nje lwenzeka malunga neminyaka eli-1300 1993 eyadlulayo, kodwa abaqinisekanga kuba le ntaba-mlilo isenokuba yakhupha uthuthu oluncinane ngowe-XNUMX.
  • I Llullaillaco ikumda weChile neArgentina. Le ntaba-mlilo yenziwa yintaba-mlilo encinane phezu kwentaba-mlilo endala encopho yayo yadilika malunga neminyaka eyi-150.000 eyadlulayo. Ezona ntaba-mlilo zincinci zaqala ukukhula malunga neminyaka eyi-10.000 eyadlulayo.
  • Mount St. Helens. Nangona isihloko sayo njengenye yezona stratovolcano zincinci kwiCascades, iNtaba iSt. Helens yeyona isebenzayo. Ugqabhuko-dubulo lwalo luye lwadala ubuncinane imigangatho engama-35 yothuthu kwiminyaka engama-3500 edluleyo kuphela. I-volcano yaziwa kakhulu ngogqabhuko-dubulo lwango-1980 olwabulala abantu abangama-57, kunye nokutshabalalisa iikhilomitha ezingama-185 zeendlela, iikhilomitha ezili-15 zikaloliwe, iibhulorho ezingama-47 kunye namakhaya angama-250. Ugqabhuko-dubulo lwabangelwa yinyikima enkulu ye-5,1 kwaye yabangela ukudilika kobutyobo ngomthamo omalunga ne-0,7 cubic kilometers.
  • Mount Rainier. INtaba iRainier yeyona ndawo iphakamileyo kwiCascade Range kwiimitha ezingama-4.392. Nangona iMount Rainier ngokwayo yaphuhliswa kwisiqingatha sesigidi seminyaka edlulileyo, ikhowuni efanayo yayikhona phakathi kwesigidi esi-1 kunye ne-2 seminyaka eyadlulayo. Ugqabhuko-dubulo kwiminyaka engama-5.600 eyadlulayo lwadala i-caldera enkulu kwincopho, eyathi kamva yazalisa njengoko ingqungquthela yaphinda yakhiwa ngogqabhuko-dubulo olwalandelayo. Ngelixa ugqabhuko-dubulo lokugqibela lwe-volcano lwenzeka malunga neminyaka eyi-1.000 eyadlulayo, luye lwaba neziqhushumbisi ezininzi ezisasaze umlotha kulo lonke ilizwe laseWashington.
  • IKrakatoa Sisiqithi sentaba-mlilo esiyinxalenye yeSunda Strait. Ngo-1883, intaba-mlilo yafumana uthotho logqabhuko-dubulo olunobundlobongela olwathumela uthuthu olungaphezu kweekhilomitha ezingama-50 kwi-atmosfera kwaye lwaluvakala ubuncinane iikhilomitha ezingama-2200 ukusuka kwindawo yalo. Amandla amakhulu awakhutshwa lugqabhuko-dubulo abangela itsunami eyasuba ubomi babantu abangama-36.400 kwiziqithi zaseSumatra naseJava.
  • INtaba iTambora Yintaba-mlilo yaseIndonesia eyagqabhuka ngowe-1815. Enyanisweni, ezi ntaba-mlilo zazinogonyamelo kangangokuba zachazwa njengezinye zezona ntaba-mlilo zikhulu embalini. Amaqondo obushushu ehlabathi ehle malunga ne-3 degrees celcius xa kwagqabhuka intaba-mlilo, oko akumangalisi oko kuba uthuthu lwalahlwa kumgama oziikhilomitha ezingama-50 emoyeni. Ngenxa yokuba ivolcano yakhupha izinto ezininzi, iye yawa emva kogqabhuko-dubulo, idala icrater enkulu ngokwaneleyo ukuba ingabonwa emkhathini kwinkqubo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-stratovolcano kunye neempawu zayo.


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