Umqobo wesandi

isithintelo sesandi

La isithintelo sesandi Yinto eyenzeka ngokwasemzimbeni ebhekisa kwisantya esisikelwe umda apho into inokuhamba ngendlela ethile ngaphandle kokugqithisa isantya sesandi kuloo ndlela. Iyahluka ngokusekelwe kwiimeko zokusingqongileyo, ezifana nobushushu kunye nokuphakama. Abantu abaninzi bebenomdla kwesi sihloko ixesha elide.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba yintoni isithintelo sesandi, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka.

Iimpawu eziphambili

iinqwelomoya eziphezulu

Xa into ihamba ngesantya esilingana okanye esingaphantsi kweso sesandi, amaza esandi esiwakhuphayo anokusasaza kumbindi ngaphandle kwengxaki. Nangona kunjalo, xa into iqala ukuhamba ngokukhawuleza kunesantya sesandi, Ukuqokelelana kwamaza esandi kwenzeka phambi kwento ehambayo.

Oku kuqokelelwa kwamaza kubangela uxinzelelo oluphezulu kummandla obizwa ngokuba yi-“shock wave”. Izandi zomothuko lugxininiso lwamandla oluthi lwenze lujikeleze into xa lufikelela okanye lugqithise kwisantya sesandi.

Xa into igqobhoza kumqobo wesandi, isiganeko esaziwa ngokuba yi "sonic boom" senzeka. Esi siganeko sibonakala ngesandi esikhulu nesahlukileyo, esifana nogqabhuko-dubulo okanye iindudumo. I-sonic boom ibangelwa ukukhululwa ngokukhawuleza kwamandla agcinwe kwi-wave shock njengoko into idlula kuyo.

Kubalulekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba i-sonic boom ayinabungozi kwaye ngokwayo, kodwa inokubangela ukungonwabi kubantu abaphantsi. Ngenxa yoku, iindawo ezininzi zinemigaqo nezithintelo kwiinqwelomoya ezibhabha kufutshane neendawo ezihlala abantu.

Imbali ethile

chuck unyaka

Makhe sibuyele emva kwiminyaka embalwa. Ngexesha leMfazwe Yehlabathi yesiBini, ihlabathi lezomoya laguqulwa ngokuphuhliswa kweenjini zokuqala zejethi. Ezi nqwelo-moya ziyakwazi ukubhabha phezulu nangaphezulu. Njengoko iteknoloji iphuhliswa, akukho nto ibonakala ngathi inokuphucula isantya de kwaziwa umqobo wesandi.

Baye baqonda ngokukhawuleza ukuba kungakhathaliseki ukuba zinamandla kangakanani iinjini ezintsha, azikwazi ukusondela kwisantya sesandi: kwelinye icala, ziya kuphelelwa amandla njengoko iinjini zisondela kuMach 1, kwaye ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngenxa yokuphahlazeka kwamaza. Ngelo xesha kwakukholelwa ukuba isantya sesandi sasingenakoyiswa, singenakoyiswa ngokwasemzimbeni. Kungoko igama elithi "umqobo wesandi".

Ngo-Oktobha 1947, inqwelomoya yokuqala ukuphula umqobo wesandi yayiyi-X-1 yokulinga, eyayilungiselelwe yona. Ukongeza, yayiyinqwelomoya yokuqala eUnited States ezinikele kuphando kwinkalo ye-aeronautics kwaye ibeke umzekelo, okukhokelela kwi-inventri engaphezu kwama-50 "X-planes".

Okumangalisayo kukuba umntu wokuqala ukubhabha ngokukhawuleza kuneMach 1 yayinguChuck Yeager, owayesakuba ngumqhubi wenqwelomoya we-USAF owaphumelela iimbasa ezininzi ngomlo wakhe wasemoyeni ngeMfazwe yesibini yeHlabathi. I-X-1 ibonakalise ukuba isantya esiphezulu sinokwenzeka ngokwasemzimbeni.

Amaza othusayo kunye nesithintelo sesandi

qhawula umqobo wesandi

Ukuqonda ukunyuka okubonakalayo kwi-aerodynamic drag, umntu kufuneka aqonde ukuba yintoni amaza othusayo. Le nto yenzeka ngenxa yotshintsho olukhulu kuxinzelelo lomoya. Nanku umzekelo olula: ukuba uneemele ezele ngamanzi, vula intende yesandla sakho kwaye ubethe amanzi ngamandla, uya kuva “iplop plop” enkulu. Ukuba uphinda ulinge kodwa udlale kuphela ngeengcebiso zeminwe yakho, akuyi kuba buhlungu nje kuphela, kodwa awuyi kuva naziphi na izandi eziphezulu.

Isizathu kukuba indawo enkulu igutyungelwe sisandla kunye namasuntswana amanzi kwindawo yempembelelo abanandawo okanye ixesha "lokuhamba" ngoko amanzi anika "ukuqina" ukuvakalelwa. Xa wenza okufanayo ngeminwe yakho, amanzi alungelelanisa impembelelo kwaye ahlale ejikeleze iminwe yakho ngaphandle kwengxolo okanye intlungu.

Kwenzeka into efanayo ngomoya: xa ubhabha ngezantya ze-subsonic, umoya unexesha lokuhamba kwaye uthathe imilo yendiza edlula kuyo. Ngexesha lokubhabha kwe-supersonic, inqwelomoya "yabetha" umoya ngokungenakuguqulwa, idala utshintsho olukhulu loxinzelelo. Oku kwaziwa ngokuba ngamaza othusayo kunye inoxanduva lokunyuka okumangalisayo kwi-aerodynamic tsala. Ke zonke iinqwelomoya ze-supersonic zilandela ipateni efanayo: i-fuselage encinci, amaphiko atshayelweyo, kunye nempumlo ebukhali kakhulu.

Iintsomi kunye neenyaniso zomqobo ovakalayo

Kukho iintsomi ezininzi ezijikeleze umqobo wesandi. Makhe sihlalutye ezinye zazo ngenyaniso ezayo:

Ubuxoki: Ukuba into iphula umqobo wesandi, iya kudubula.

Inyaniso: Asiyonyani. Nangona ukudlula kwento ngokusebenzisa isithintelo sesandi kunokubangela i-sonic boom, oku akuthethi ukuba into iya kuqhuma. Ukwakhiwa kwento yenzelwe ukujamelana nemikhosi eyenziwa ngexesha lale nkqubo.

Ubuxoki: Umqobo wesandi ludonga olubonakalayo.

Inyaniso: Isithintelo sesandi asingomqobo oqinileyo womzimba. Ligama elichaza isantya aqokelelana ngaso amaza esandi aze abangele ukothuka. Yinto eyenzekayo enxulumene nokusasazwa kwesandi kwindawo ethile.

Ubuxoki: Iinqwelomoya zeSupersonic zihlala zisaphula umqobo wesandi xa zibhabha.

Inyaniso: Akuyomfuneko ukuba inqwelo-moya ye-supersonic ihlale isophula umqobo wesandi. Inqwelo-moya ebalaseleyo inokubhabha ngaphantsi nangaphezulu kwesantya sesandi, kuxhomekeka kwiimeko nakwiinjongo zokubhabha. Kuphela xa bedlula isantya sesandi kuveliswa i-sonic boom.

IMito: I-sonic boom iyingozi kubantu abaphantsi.

Inyaniso: I-sonic boom ngokwayo ayiyingozi. Nangona kunjalo, inokucaphukisa kwaye iphazamise abantu abasemhlabeni. Ingxolo ephezulu ngesiquphe inokubangela inkathazo kunye nokuphazamiseka kwiindawo zokuhlala kunye neendawo zasezidolophini, ezikhokelele ekubekweni kwemimiselo kunye nezithintelo kwiinqwelomoya ezihamba phezulu kufuphi neendawo ezihlala abantu.

IMito: Iinqwelomoya kuphela ezinokophula umqobo wesandi.

Inyaniso: Nangona iinqwelomoya zezona ndlela zixhaphakileyo zothutho ezinxulumene nesithintelo sesandi, asikuphela kwento enokuyoyisa. Ezinye iinqwelo-mafutha, ezinjengeerokethi, imijukujelwa kunye neeprojectiles, nazo zisenokwaphula umqobo wesandi xa zifikelela kwisantya esiphezulu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nomqobo wesandi kunye neempawu zayo.


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