Pangea

wonke umhlaba kunye

Kumaxesha amandulo amazwekazi ayengacwangciswanga njengokuba enjalo namhlanje. Ekuqaleni kwayo yonke loo nto, yayinye kuphela into enkulu eyayinendawo enkulu yomhlaba. Eli lizwekazi labizwa Pangea. Kwakukho ngexesha lePaleozoic ngasekupheleni kwaye Mesozoic kwangethuba. Ngeli xesha malunga neminyaka engama-335 yezigidi eyadlulayo yenzekile. Emva kwexesha, malunga ne-200 yezigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo, lo mhlaba mkhulu kangaka waqala ukwahlulwa ngokuhamba kwamacwecwe etektoni kwaye ahlula amazwekazi njengoko sisazi namhlanje.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga nePangea, ukuvela kwayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

pangea yasemhlabeni

Uninzi lweli lizwekazi lwalugxile kumazantsi e-hemisphere. Olwandle kuphela olwalurhangqiwe lalibizwa ngokuba yiPanthalassa. Ubomi basePangea babungafani nanamhlanje. Imozulu yayifudumele kwaye ubomi bezilwanyana nezityalo bohluke ngokupheleleyo. Ezinye zezilwanyana ezaziphila kwiminyaka ezizigidi ezili-160 ezazikho le supercontinent yayiyi-traversodontids kunye ne-Shringasaurus indicus. Ezi zizilwanyana ezibonakaliswa ngokuba neempondo ezimbini zangaphambili kunye nobude bomzimba ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi malunga neemitha ezi-4. Ooqongqothwane bokuqala kunye neeicicadas babonakala kule ndawo ibalaseleyo. Sele kuhlwile Ixesha leTriassic  xa uninzi lwezirhubuluzi lwaphumelela. Iidinosaurs zokuqala zenziwa zanyathela iPangea.

Akukho nto ingako eyaziwayo ngobomi baselwandle kuba iifosili azifumanekanga kuLwandlekazi iPanthalassa. Kucingelwa ukuba ii-ammonoids, i-brachiopods, isiponji kunye neepeni zezilwanyana ezazikho ngelo xesha. Kwaye zezokuba ezi zilwanyana ziye zaqhelana nokuhamba kweminyaka. Ngokubhekisele kwizityalo, yayizigymnosperms ezazilawula. Ezi zityalo bezithatha indawo yazo zonke izityalo ezivelisa imbewu.

UAlfred Wegener kunye noPangea

ipenge

Le ndoda yayisisazinzulu saseJamani, umphandi, geophysicist, isazinzulu ngeemeteorist esaziwa ngokuba ngumyili wethiyori Ukuhamba kwelizwekazi. Yile ndoda yaqala ukuququzelela izimvo zokuba amazwekazi ahamba kancinci kakhulu kule minyaka idlulileyo. Le ntshukumo ayizange ime kwaye namhlanje iyaziwa ukuba ibangelwa yimisinga ye-convection kwingubo yoMhlaba.

Le mbono yokuhamba kwamazwekazi Yakhuliswa ngo-1912 kodwa ayizange yamkelwe de kube ngo-1950, iminyaka engama-20 emva kokufa kwakhe. Kwaye ukuba izifundo ezahlukeneyo ze-paleomagnetism kwafuneka zenziwe ngenjongo yazo yayikukuhlalutya umazibuthe woMhlaba okwangoku ngaphambili. Ngaphaya koko, olu phononongo lukwanenjongo yokwazi indawo ekuyo iipleyiti zetectonic ngaphambili.

Konke kwenzeka xa uAlfred Wegener ejonga iatlasi kwaye wazibuza ukuba ingaba amazwekazi ayahambelana na. Yile ndlela aqonde ngayo ukuba amazwekazi ayekhe amanyana. Emva kokufunda ixesha elide wakwazi ukucacisa ubukho be-supercontinent awayibiza ngokuba yiPangea. Ukwahlulwa kweli lizwekazi liphezulu yinkqubo ecothayo ethathe izigidi zeminyaka kwaye yaqala ukwahlula ezinye iinxalenye zomhlaba ezenza amazwekazi amathandathu anamhlanje.

Ukwahlulwa kweTectonic plate

Ukutyhubela imbali zininzi izazinzulu eziye zazama ukuphinda-phinda indlela intshukumo yamazwekazi isuka kwindawo yasePangea kude kube namhla. Kuyaziwa kwizifundo ezahlukeneyo ukuba iiplate zeetectonic zihamba rhoqo njengoko zibekwe ngaphezulu kwendawo ebonakalayo okanye yengubo. Le ngubo ye-viscous iyangqinelana nezixhobo zengubo yasemhlabeni. Le mibhobho yokuhanjiswa kwengubo ibangela ukufuduka kwamazwekazi ngenxa yokuhamba kwabantu ngenxa yomahluko kubunzima. Kuye kwafunyanwa apho kukho iimeko apho iiplate ziqhekeka kwaye zahlukane ngokukhawuleza.

Olunye uphando lubonakalisile ukuba ukwahlulwa kwamacwecwe etektoni kwenzeka kwizigaba ezibini. Inqanaba lokuqala kulapho ukuhamba kwamazwekazi kubonakala khona. Okwesibini kulapho, emva kwezigidi zeminyaka yokuzolula, amacwecwe ancipha kakhulu, aqhekeza, kwaye ahlukane, avumela amanzi olwandle ukuba angene phakathi kwabo.

Ubomi ngaphambi kukaPangea babuhluke ngokupheleleyo. Izwekazi kunye nobomi abuzange buvele ngale nto ibalaseleyo. Ngaphambi koko zazikho amanye amazwekazi afana neRodinia, Columbia kunye nePannotia. Kwidatha yokuqikelela, iRodinia yayikho kwiminyaka eli-1,100 yezigidi eyadlulayo; I-Columbia phakathi kwe-1,800 kunye ne-1,500 yezigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo kwaye iPannotia inedatha echanekileyo. Le ntshukumo yamazwekazi ibonisa ukuba kwizigidi zeminyaka ukusasazwa komhlaba kuya kwahluka kule yangoku. Kungenxa yokuba umhlaba uhamba rhoqo. Kuyinyani ukuba ukuhanjiswa kwamazwekazi kwahluke ngokupheleleyo kwizigidi zeminyaka.

Xa iPangea yanyusa iGondwana kunye neLaurasia amanxweme okuqala kunye neAtlantic kunye neLwandle lwaseIndiya zavela. Ulwandle olwahlula ezi ndawo zimbini zomhlaba lwalubizwa ngokuba yiTethys.

IPangea, eyadlulayo neyekamva

ngaphambili nangoku

Nangona ubomi kwikamva buya kwahluka, itekhnoloji iyasivumela ukuba siphinde sibuyele ukuba umhlaba uza kujongeka kanjani kwiminyaka engama-250 yezigidi. Kulixesha apho kucingelwa ukuba kuyakubakho utshintsho olukhulu kwaye kubhaptizwe igama likaPangea Ultima okanye Neopangea.

Konke oku kukucinga nje, iinkcazo ziyaqhubeka ziphuhliswa zizazinzulu ezifunde intshukumo yamacwecwe eteknoloji iminyaka emininzi. Ukuba umhlaba awuchaphazeli nayiphi na into evela kwiasteroids, enye into enokuthi itshintshe ngokupheleleyo umhlaba wonke, kucingelwa ukuba lincinci kakhulu ulwandle lweAtlantic oluya kusala kuba uninzi lwamazwekazi aya kuphinda abuyele kwilizwekazi eliphambili.

I-Afrika ikwathelekelelwa ukungqubana ne-Yurophu ne-Australia izokuya emantla iphele ngokujoyina ilizwekazi laseAsia. Oko kukuthi, iplanethi yethu iya kuba yinto efanayo nokuba yayimalunga neminyaka engama-335 yezigidi eyadlulayo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi ngePangea kunye neempawu zayo.


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