Intili yeGlacier

Umkhenkce e-iceland

Iintlambo zomkhenkce, ezikwabizwa ngokuba ziintlambo zomkhenkce, zibhekisa kwiintlambo apho imikhenkce emikhulu ijikeleza okanye yakha yajikeleza, ishiya ubume bomhlaba obucacileyo bomkhenkce. A intlambo yomkhenkce Ibaluleke kakhulu kwi-biodiversity ye-ecosystem kunye ne-ecology balance.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga nokuba yintoni intlambo ye-glacial, iimpawu zayo ze-geomorphology.

Yintoni intlambo yomkhenkce

intlambo yaseCantabrian

Iintlambo zomkhenkce, ezikwabizwa ngokuqhelekileyo ngokuthi yimijelo yomkhenkce, zezo ntlambo apho sinokufumanisa ukuba zishiye ngasemva iindlela zokunceda eziqhelekileyo zomkhenkce.

Ngamafutshane, iintlambo zomkhenkce zifana nomkhenkce. Iintlambo zomkhenkce zenziwa xa izixa ezikhulu zomkhenkce ziqokelelana kwi-glacial cirques. Umkhenkce osuka kumaleko asezantsi ekugqibeleni uye emazantsi entlambo, apho ekugqibeleni ube lichibi.

Enye yeempawu eziphambili zeentlambo zomkhenkce kukuba zinendawo enqamlezileyo emile okwentlambo, yiyo loo nto zikwabizwa ngokuba yimijelo yomkhenkce. Olu phawu lolona phawu luvumela izazi ze geologists ukuba zikwazi ukwahlula ezi ntlobo zeentlambo apho izixa ezikhulu zomkhenkce zityibilika okanye zike zityibilike. Ezinye iimpawu zeentlambo zomkhenkce kukugqoka kwazo kunye neempawu zokwemba ngokugqithiseleyo, ezibangelwa ukukhuhlana komkhenkce kunye nokutsalwa kwezinto.

Imikhenkce yamandulo eMhlabeni yafaka izinto ezazikhukuliswe ngumkhenkce ngaphambili. Ezi zixhobo zininzi kakhulu, kwaye zenza ngokwahlukileyo ngokubanzi iintlobo zemoraines, ezifana ne-moraines esezantsi, ii-moraines ezisecaleni, ii-moraines eziwayo, kwaye okubi nakakhulu, phakathi apho i-ice glacial edumileyo idla ngokusekwa. Imizekelo yokugqibela ngamachibi e-glacial esinokuwafumana kwimida ye-Alps yaseYurophu (ebizwa ngokuba yiComo, iMeya, iGarda, iGeneva, iConstanta, njl.) okanye kwezinye iindawo ezisembindini weSweden kunye nabanye abaninzi.

Amandla entlambo yomkhenkce

iimpawu zentlambo yomkhenkce

Ngokuphathelele ukhukuliseko lweendlela zomkhenkce, kubalulekile ukukhankanya ukuba imikhenkce yomkhenkce inokhukuliseko kakhulu kwaye inokusebenza njengamabhanti okuhambisa izinto zabo bonke ubungakanani obugalelwe ngamathambeka, izithutha ukuya kwiintlambo.

Kwakhona, kukho umyinge omninzi wamanzi anyibilikayo kumkhenkce, ekwazi ukujikeleza ngesantya esiphezulu kwiitonela ngaphakathi kwe-glacier, ilayisha izinto ezisezantsi kwi-glacier, kwaye le misinga yangaphantsi iyasebenza kakhulu. Izinto eziziphetheyo zidala i-abrasion, kwaye amatye ngaphakathi komkhenkce anokutyunyuzwa abe ngumxube omhle wentlenga kunye nomgubo wodongwe womkhenkce.

Iiglaciers zinokusebenza ngeendlela ezintathu eziphambili kwaye zezi: Ukuqala kwe-glacial, abrasion, thrust.

Kwindawo yokumbiwa kweebhloko ezaphukileyo, amandla omlambo womkhenkce angashukuma kwaye aphakamise amaqhekeza amakhulu amatye aqhekekileyo. Enyanisweni, iprofayile yobude bomkhenkce ayilungelelananga kakhulu, inezowuni eziba banzi kwaye zinzulu ngendlela yokudakumba okubizwa ngokuba yimikhombe okanye imikhombe, ethi yenziwe nzulu ngokugrumba ngokugqithisileyo kwamatye angagrumbi kakhulu naxhathisayo. Indawo ke iyacuthwa kwaye ibizwa ngokuba yilatshi okanye ithreshold.

Kwicandelo elinqamlezileyo, amaqonga enziwa kumatye aqinileyo athi tyaba kumphakamo othile, abizwa ngokuba ngamagxa amagxa. Ukukrazula kuquka ukusila, ukukrwela, nokusila amatye arhabaxa ngamaqhekeza omkhenkce. Oku kudala imikrwelo kunye neegrooves. Ekupholiseni, zizinto ezigqwesileyo, njengephepha lesanti ematyeni.

Ngexesha elifanayo, ngenxa ye-abrasion, amatye ayatyunyuzwa, avelise udongwe nentlenga, eyaziwa ngokuba ngumgubo womkhenkce ngenxa yobukhulu bawo obuziinkozo, equlethwe kumanzi anyibilikayo kwaye inembonakalo yobisi oluncibilikisiweyo.

Ngokutyhala, umkhenkce uthutha kwaye utyhalele ngakuwo izinto ezibolayo ezityumzayo kwaye iziguqule njengoko kuchaziwe ngasentla.

iintlobo zokhukuliseko

intlambo yomkhenkce

Phakathi kwazo ziyaziwa iisekisi, tarn, imiqolo, uphondo, intamo. Xa kusenziwa imodeli yeentlambo ze-glacial, zivame ukuhlala kwiintlambo esele zikhona ngaphambili, eziye zanda kwaye zinzulu kwi-U. I-glaciers yalungisa kwaye yenza lula i-curves yeentlambo zokuqala kunye ne-rock spurs, ukudala i-spurs enkulu ye-triangular okanye i-truncated spurs.

Kwiprofayili ye-longitudinal eqhelekileyo yentlambo yomkhenkce, izitya ezithe tyaba kunye nezandiso zilandelana, zenza amatyathanga amachibi afumana igama labazali bethu xa izitya zigcwala amanzi.

Ukwenzela bona, i-Hanging Valley yintlambo yakudala yomlambo womkhenkce ophambili. Zichazwa ngenxa yokuba ukukhukuliseka komkhenkce kuxhomekeke kubukhulu bomkhenkce, yaye umkhenkce unokuwenza nzulu iintlambo zawo kodwa kungekhona imisinga yawo.

IiFjords zenza xa amanzi olwandle engena kwiintlambo ezinomkhenkce, ezifana nezo zaseChile, eNorway, eGreenland, eLabrador, nakwiifjords ezisemazantsi eAlaska. Ngokuqhelekileyo zidibene neempazamo kunye nokwahlukana kwe-lithological. Bafikelela kubunzulu obukhulu, njengejelo likaMesiya eChile, eli Imalunga ne-1228 yeemitha ubunzulu. Oku kunokucaciswa ngokugrumba okugqithisileyo komkhenkce okhukuliseka ngaphantsi komgangatho wolwandle.

Umkhenkce nawo unokulinganisa amatye enza amatye afana neegusha, anomphezulu ogudileyo, ongqukuva ufana nomhlambi weegusha ezijongwe kumphakamo. Zihamba ngobungakanani ukusuka kwimitha ukuya kwishumi leemitha kwaye zilungelelaniswe ecaleni kwendlela yokuhamba komkhenkce. Icala lomthombo womkhenkce lineprofayili egudileyo ngenxa yesiphumo sokusila, ngelixa elinye icala lineeprofayili ze-angular kunye nezingaqhelekanga ngenxa yokususwa kwamatye.

Iifom zokuqokelela

Amanzi omkhenkce aye ancipha ukususela kwixesha lokugqibela lomkhenkce, malunga neminyaka eyi-18.000 eyadlulayo, ebonisa ukukhululeka okuzuzwe njengelifa kuwo onke amacandelo ababekuwo ngexesha lokugqibela lomkhenkce.

Iidiphozithi ze-glacial ziyi-deposit eyenziwe ngezinto ezifakwe ngokuthe ngqo ngama-glaciers, ngaphandle kwesakhiwo esiqingqiweyo kwaye amaqhekeza awo anoluhlu. Ukusuka kwindawo yokujonga ubungakanani beenkozo, zihluke kakhulu, ukusuka kumgubo we-glacial ukuya kwii-aggregates ezingazinzanga ezithutha iikhilomitha ezingama-500 ukusuka kwindawo yazo yemvelaphi, njengalezo zifumaneka kwiCentral Park eNew York; eChile, eSan Alfonso, kwidrowa yaseMaipo. Xa ezi diphozithi zidityanisiwe, zenza i-tillites.

Igama elithi moraine lisetyenziswa kwiintlobo ezininzi ezibandakanya ubukhulu becala iintaba. Kukho iintlobo ezininzi ze-moraines kunye neenduli ezinde ezibizwa ngokuba yi-drumlins. I-moraine engaphambili yindunduma ephambi komkhenkce owakha kwi-arc xa umkhenkce uhlala uzinzile kwindawo enye iminyaka okanye amashumi eminyaka. Ukuba ukuhamba komkhenkce kuyaqhubeka, intlenga iya kuqhubeka iqokelelana kulo mqobo. Ukuba umkhenkce uyahlehla, umaleko we-moraine othambileyo, obizwa ngokuba yi-basal moraine, uyafakwa, njengakwimimandla emanzi yommandla we-Great Lakes e-United States. Kwelinye icala, ukuba umkhenkce uyaqhubeka uhlehla, ummandla wawo ophambili unokuphinda uzinze, wenze i-moraine ehlayo.

I-Lateral moraines iqhelekile kwintlambo yomkhenkce kwaye ithwala intlenga ecaleni kwentlambo, ibeka iinduli ezinde. Iifom ze-moraine ezisembindini apho i-moraines ezimbini ezisecaleni zidibana khona, njengasekudibaneni kweentlambo ezimbini.

Iinduli ezigudileyo, ezibhityileyo ezinxuseneyo ezenziwe ziidipozithi ze-moraine ezibekwe yi-continental glaciers. Ziyakwazi ukufikelela kwi-50 yeemitha kunye nekhilomitha ubude, kodwa uninzi luncinci. EOntario, eKhanada, zifumaneka kumasimi anamakhulu amadrumlin. Okokugqibela, kuchongiwe iifom ezenziwe ngamaqhekeza omkhenkce afana nekame, iiterraces zekame kunye neeskers.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni intlambo ye-glacial kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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