INtaba iKosciuszko

intaba enekhephu elincinane

Uluhlu oluKhulu lokwahlula likhaya le INtaba iKosciuszko, eyona ncopho iphakamileyo kwilizwekazi laseOstreliya. Imi phakathi kweKosciuszko National Park, le ntaba iphakamileyo iphakame kangangeemitha ezingama-2228. Ngowe-1840, umkhenkethi owaziwayo wasePoland uPaul Strzelecki wayibiza ngokuba yiNtaba yeKosciuszko, enika imbeko kwigorha lasePoland elibekekileyo, uNjengele Tadeusz Kościuszko.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neNtaba iKosciuszko, iimpawu zayo, i-geology kunye nokunye okuninzi.

I-Geology yeNtaba iKosciuszko

eyona ntaba ikhephu

Ukusuka kumathambeka eNtaba iKosciuszko unokubona umbono ochukumisayo ogubungela inxalenye yethafa elikhukulisekileyo elijikeleze le ntaba. Ngexesha le-Ordovician, Malunga nezigidi ezingama-450 kwiminyaka eyadlulayo, ummandla ongqonge iNtaba iKosciuszko wantywiliselwa phantsi kolwandle olukhulu. Intlenga ezisuka kule ndawo yakudala yaselwandle ekugqibeleni zaguquka zaba ngamatye e-metamorphic, afana nezileyiti, iiphyllites, quartzites kunye ne schists, ezisabonwa nanamhlanje phakathi kweRawson Pass kunye neWatson's Crags.

Ngalo lonke ixesha le-Silurian kunye ne-Devonian, ummandla waba namaxesha okusonga, ukunyusa kunye nokudilizwa. Ukuphakama kwenkangeleko yomhlaba kwaphenjelelwa ngakumbi kukungena kwegraniti malunga nezigidi ezingama-390 zeminyaka eyadlulayo. Inqanaba elizinzile ngakumbi laphuhliswa kwizigidi zeminyaka eliqela, okukhokelela kukhukuliseko oluthe chu kancinci kunye nokwakheka kwepeneplain. Kuphela awona matye axhathisayo ashiyekileyo, avelisa iincochoyi eziphakama ngaphezu komndilili ojikelezayo wokuphakama, kubandakanywa neNtaba iKosciuszko emangalisayo.

Eli nqanaba Yathatha ixesha leCarboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic kunye neCretaceous, ephela malunga ne-65 yezigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo.. Ngeli xesha, impuma yeOstreliya yaba nokunyuka okuphawulekayo, okukhokelela ekubeni iiNtaba zeSnowy zifikelele kwindawo ekuzo ngoku. Oku kunyuswa kwaqhubeka kwada kwamalunga nesigidi seminyaka eyadlulayo, kubangela iimpazamo kunye nokudalwa kwemiwonyo enzulu apho imilambo ngoku ihamba ngamandla amakhulu.

Malunga nezigidi ezibini zeminyaka eyadlulayo, ngexesha lePleistocene, Kwehla ngesiquphe amaqondo obushushu kunye nomkhenkce owenzeka kwindawo ejikeleze iNtaba iKosciuszko. Le nkqubo yayiphazanyiswa ngamaxesha adibeneyo, okubangelwa ukubunjwa kwe-moraines elandelelanayo, ukukrolwa kwee-cirques, ubukho beebhloko eziphazamisayo kunye nokudalwa kwamachibi e-glacial.

Ukunyuka kweNtaba iKosciuszko

INtaba iKosciuszko

Indlela eya eCharlotte Pass ibandakanya umzila okhokelela ekunyukeni kwe-7 km ukuya encotsheni. Ngaphambi kowe-1976, uhola wendlela wawuvumela ukuba kudlule iimoto. I-Thredbo ibonelela ngenye indlela yokunyuka ingqungquthela, ixesha elide kodwa lifikeleleke ngokulinganayo, kunye nokulula okongeziweyo kwe-chairlift eshiya kufuphi phezulu.

I-Thredbo kunye ne-Perisher Blue ski resorts, ebekwe kwi-Kosciuszko National Park, inikezela ngezona ntaba ze-ski ezikufutshane eCanberra naseSydney.

Kukho inkolelo yokuba ama-Aboriginal ase-Australia asenokuba sele eqaphele ukuvelela kwe-Kosciuszko Range ngaphambi kokufika kwabaseYurophu. Oku kuqatshelwa ngekwandiswe kwiintlobo ngeentlobo zezilwanyana kunye neentyatyambo ezifumaneka kule ndawo.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana

INtaba iKosciuszko

Isikhululo sokudlula iCharlotte, esimalunga neemitha ezili-1.700 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, sibonelela ngendawo ebukekayo engqongwe yimithi yekhephu (Eucalyptus pauciflora). Kwikona ephezulu ngasekunene unokubona ingqungquthela enkulu ye-Stillwell Ridge.

Iintlobo ngeentlobo zezityalo zealpine nesubalpine zikhula kakuhle encotsheni yentaba, eziquka malunga nama-200 eentlobo zezityalo neentyatyambo. Phakathi kwazo, malunga neentlobo ezingamashumi amabini zizodwa kule ndawo, ngelixa ezingaphezu kwamashumi amathathu zihlelwa njengezinqabileyo. Ummandla weentaba zeNtaba iKosciuszko unabela nje i-100 km², kwaye umgca womthi uqhelekile ukuba ube kwi-1830 yeemitha ukuphakama. Iintsapho zezityalo eziphambili ziquka Asteraceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Juncaceae kunye Epacridaceae, nangona kungekho odlula imitha enye ngobude. Ezantsi ezantsi, ngakumbi kufutshane namachibi anomkhenkce, isityalo esinesityalo i-Carex gaudichaudiana siyachuma.

Ukwahluka kweentlobo zezityalo ezifumaneka kulo mmandla kunokubalelwa kukwahluka komhlaba kunye nemozulu, ezichatshazelwa kukuphakama. Ezi zityalo ziye zaqhelana neemeko ezithile zokusingqongileyo zeendawo zazo zokuhlala, ezifana nemigxobhozo, imigxobhozo kunye nemigxobhozo. Ezinye iintlobo, ezifana ne-Veronica densifolia kunye ne-Kelleria dieffenbachii, ziye zavelisa iipateni ezikhethekileyo zokukhula kwehlathi.

Ezinye, ezifana ne-Coprosma niphophila kunye ne-Colobanthus nivicola, zineempawu phakathi kwe-herbaceous kunye ne-shrubby, kunye nezakhiwo ezinoboya okanye ezikhukhulayo ezikhusela kubanda. Iindidi ezifana ne-Podocarpus lawrencei, Phebalium ovatifolium, Pentachondra pumila, Grevillea australis kunye neKunzea tumbari ziye zaqhelana nomhlaba onamatye kwaye zihlala zikhula kakuhle kumathambeka anelanga. Imihlaba ene-asidi ifakwe kwi-sorrel (i-Rumex acetosella), ibanika umbala obomvu.

Ukuchazwa kwemozulu yealpine kufuna ukuba izityalo zimelane nobusika obubanda kakhulu kwaye zikhule ngokukhawuleza kwiinyanga ezishushu. Iintyatyambo zidla ngokuvela ekupheleni kukaJanuwari ukuya ekuqaleni kukaFebruwari kwaye iimpawu zeentlobo ezifana Celmisia costiniana, Celmisia pugioniformis, Craspedia sp kunye ne Euphrasia collina subsp.

Ngexesha lehlobo laseAustral, elinokuhlala kude kube nguMatshi, ukufika kwePodocarpus lawrencei, Ranunculus anemoneus kunye neCaltha introloba ngamanye amaxesha kulibaziseka de kunyibilike ikhephu. Ukukhula okucothayo kwamatyholo ngeli xesha lonyaka kuyisiphumo samandla amancinci aqokelelweyo. Kwi-avareji, ububanzi beziqu zePodocarpus lawrencei kwandisa kuphela i-0,25 mm ngonyaka. Ngaphandle kokukhula okucothayo, ezi zityalo kufuneka zibususe ngokufanelekileyo ubushushu ngenxa yokukhanya kwelanga lasehlotyeni, okukhokelela ekubeni amagqabi amancinane aneefomu ezifana nenaliti.

Embindini wenkulungwane yama-20, iintlobo ezininzi zezityalo zaziswa ngenjongo yokulondoloza umhlaba kunye nophuhliso lwamanzi. Nangona kunjalo, ezininzi zezi ntlobo azikwazi ukumelana neemeko zemozulu zeNtaba iKosciuszko. Ngaphandle koku, abanye baye bakwazi ukuzinza ngokuzinzileyo. Inani lezilwanyana ezingaqhelekanga elabhalwa ngowe-1899 lalinye kuphela, kodwa ngowe-1986, elo nani liye landa laya kutsho kuma-20.

Izilwanyana, njengezityalo, ziye zaqhelana nokusingqongileyo kwaye zineentlobo ngeentlobo zeentlobo ezihlala zikho. Ngokukodwa, i-opossum encinci yentaba esemngciphekweni yokuphela inokufunyanwa ngaphakathi kwesi sistim yendalo. Ukongeza, le paki ilikhaya kwiintlobo zeentaka ezingaphezu kwama-200, ezimele i-40% ebalulekileyo yeentlobo ezaziwayo eNew South Wales. Phakathi kwazo kukho ukhozi olukhulu lwaseOstreliya kunye nolwandle lwaseOstreliya olubhabhayo. Ukongezelela, kule ntaba kukho ukufuduka kwaminyaka le kwe<em>bogong ( Agrotis infusa ), uhlobo lwenundu olufuna ikhusi kwimingxunya yamatye.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neNtaba yaseKosciuszko kunye neempawu zayo.


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