Great London Smog

inkungu enkulu yaseLondon

Ungcoliseko lomoya lunokubangela iingxaki ezinzulu zokuphefumla kunye nentliziyo ngenxa yokukhutshwa kweegesi eziyityhefu zegreenhouse ezikhutshwa ngamashishini kunye nezothutho. Imeko enzima ngolo hlobo iyenzeka inkungu enkulu yase london yaveliswa ngonyaka ka-1952. Lixesha apho inkungu engcolisa indalo yaqokelelana ngenxa yeepateni zomoya osingqongileyo ekufuneka sizilandele yaze yabangela ukufa kwabantu abaninzi.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ngazo zonke iimpawu, izizathu kunye nemiphumo yenkungu enkulu eLondon.

Inkungu enkulu yaseLondon

eLondon ngo-1952

Ngokubanzi, izixeko zaseNtshona Yurophu ziye zaphefumla umoya ococekileyo kwiminyaka yakutshanje. Uhlaziyo kungcoliseko olungqingqwa luhlala lubhekisa kwizixeko ezikumantla eTshayina, apho iifoto zezitrato ezingamashumi eemitha zingenakubonwa ngenxa yokusasazeka komsi wentsholongwane. Umbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi ulumkise abantu ngokuphindaphindiweyo malunga nemingcipheko yesifo semiphunga kunye nentliziyo ehlala kwezi meko. Elinye lawona matyala adume kakubi yayiyinkungu enkulu eLondon ngo-1952, eyaphinda yaphindwa kwisizini yokuqala yochungechunge lwaseBhritane iCrown.

NgoDisemba 5, eyona ntlekele inkulu yongcoliso embalini yaqalisa kwiiBritish Isles. ILondon yabethwa ngumoya obandayo kangangeeveki, ngoko ukufudumeza amakhaya neeofisi, babekwenza oko ngobushushu obubangelwa ngamalahle.

Abantu babeqhelene “nenkungu” kangangokuba abazange bamangaliswe kukuba ungcoliseko lomoya luminxa izixeko kwinkungu enkulu kangangokuba ingcoliseke ngakumbi kunesiqhelo. Kule meko, ungcoliso lwalulukhulu kangangokuba kwakungenakwenzeka ukubona ukusuka kwelinye icala lesitrato ukuya kwelinye; kwezinye iindawo zempuma yeLondon, iinyawo azizange zibonwe, ngokutsho kweBBC.

Umnxibelelanisi we-ABC uchaze le nto ngale ndlela:

“Ezi nkungu zingqingqwa ziphantse zaqina zitya iibhasi zilandelwa ngumntu ohamba ngeenyawo ephethe izembe lentlaka esandleni; ezicima isandi; ukuba kunyanzelise "iicinema" ukuba zibhengeze kuluntu ukuba "ukubonakala kwesikrini akuhambi ngaphaya komqolo wesine"; oko kunqumamisa, njengoko kwenzeka ngoDisemba 8 ophelileyo, ukusebenza kweLa Traviata ngenxa ye-laryngitis ye-tenor kunye neesoprano ezimbini kwaye ngenxa yokuba iikwayala azikwazanga ukubona i-baton ye-maestro; leyo iphinda ingene ezindlwini nakwimiphunga; oko kungcolisa ifanitshala kunye nokwenza mnyama iimpahla kunye namathe, ancamathele eglasini, kwiikhethini nakwimizobo, sisibetho sentliziyo, se-asthmatic kunye nabo banemibhobho ye-bronchial ebuhlungu baze bafe. Bafa ngaphandle koncedo, ngamanye amaxesha, ngenxa yokuba ugqirha akakwazi ukungena "kwingubo" ngexesha, elinciphisa i-horizon ukuya kwiiyadi ezimbini.

Oonobangela beNkungu enkulu yaseLondon

inkungu enkulu yaseLondon

Ekuseni, inkungu yaqala ukutshintsha umbala ngenxa yesixa esikhulu sothuthu oluphuma kwiitshimini kunye nongcoliseko oluphuma ezimotweni., imeko emele ibe mbi ngakumbi kukuba iitram zombane zisanda kutshintshwa ziibhasi ezihamba ngedizili. Ezi zinto ziye zadibana kwi-cocktail eyathi yabulala amawaka abantu ngeentsuku nje ezimbalwa.

Kangangeentsuku ezintlanu, inkungu eshinyeneyo evela kwindawo ebandayo engenamoya yagubungela umbindi weLondon kunye nommandla oziikhilomitha ezingama-20; umsi omnyama ogqithisileyo ophuma ekutshisweni kwezibaso ezikumgangatho ophantsi yenza inkungu yangqimba, yatyeba ngakumbi ngesulfure, yaza yakhupha amasuntswana easidi yesulfuric. Isenzeko esibizwa ngokuba yi-smog siyaveliswa, umxube wenkungu nomsi oyingozi kakhulu empilweni.

Isixeko saba liqamza longcoliseko lomoya: lalingabonakali kumgama weemitha, Ukuhamba komhlaba kunye neenqwelo moya zema kwaye abantu bazulazula ezitratweni benxibe imaski yobuso. Imiboniso yaseDantesque yarekhodwa, njengabaqhubi abaqhuba iimoto zabo ngeentloko zabo ngeefestile, kwaye baphoqeleka ukuba bazishiye izithuthi zabo phakathi kwendlela ngaphandle kokubonakala.

Amalahle ebelelona futhe liphambili eLondon ukususela ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Kwadlula ixesha apho iinkuni zazisetyenziselwa ukufudumeza amabhotwe kunye nezindlu zangasese, njengoko amahlathi aye anqongophala ngenxa yokwakhiwa kweenqanawa okanye izindlu, izinto ezixabisekileyo. Ingxaki embindini wenkulungwane yama-XNUMX yayiyingxaki yezoqoqosho eyathothisa iGreat Britain, inyanzelekile ukuba ithumele kumazwe angaphandle amalahle awo akumgangatho ongcono, kunye namanye anoxinzelelo oluphezulu lwesulfure ukuze isetyenziswe ngokwawo.

umsebenzi kunye nokufa

ungcoliseko olugqithisileyo

Ngokuhamba kwexesha, inkungu ayizange inciphe nje kuphela, kodwa yaya iba ngqindilili. Iikonsathi ezininzi ziye zarhoxiswa ngenxa yokuba umsi ude wangena kwindawo evaliweyo; kuquka ukusebenza kweLa Traviata eSadler's Wells Theatre yacinywa kuba iqonga lalingabonakali eminqubeni. Abasemagunyeni bakwalumkise iintsapho ukuba zingabahambisi abantwana babo esikolweni hleze balahleke endleleni.

Ekuphela kwento engazange irhoxiswe ngumdyarho wemveli wokuwela ilizwe phakathi kwamaqela eOxford neCambridge eWimbledon. Kakade ke, iimbaleki ezikude kwakufuneka zinxibe iimaski zokuthintela imiphunga yazo ukuba ingagcwali ngeegesi ezinetyhefu, yaye zazikhokelwa ngabagwebi, abakhwaza bathi: “Ngale ndlela, ngale ndlela!” lonke ixehsa.

Ngokusengqiqweni, le miqondiso yesihogo ibangele ukwanda kokonakalisa kunye nolwaphulo-mthetho: ukuphanga, ukubiwa nokubiwa kweengxowa kunye neengxowa, ngenxa yekhusi elilungiselelwe bubumnyama. Kodwa eyona nto ibetha kakhulu yayilinani lokufa elirekhodiweyo ngeentsuku ezintlanu inkungu iqhubekile, njengoko kukhunjulwa, kunye neziphumo: kuqikelelwa ukuba abantu abayi-12.000 babhubhile, ngakumbi phakathi kwabantwana abasanda kuzalwa kunye nabantu abadala, ngenxa yosulelo lwemiphunga yokuphefumula okuphezulu. i-hypoxia, okanye ukuphazamiseka kwendlela yomoya ephezulu.

Emva kweentsuku ezintlanu esihogweni sobumnyama kunye nomsi onobungozi, inkungu enkulu yaphakanyiswa nge-9 kaDisemba, xa umoya onamandla wasentshona uthwala amafu ayingozi ukusuka eLondon ukuya kuLwandle oluMntla. Ijongene nentlekele yokusingqongileyo, iPalamente yase-Bhritane yanyanzeleka ukuba ithathe amanyathelo asemthethweni okuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwamafutha efosili kunye nokunciphisa ungcoliseko lomoya.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nenkungu enkulu eLondon kunye nemiphumo yayo.


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