Inkanyamba yeTropical

inkanyamba yetropiki

Un inkanyamba yetropiki sesinye sezona zoyikiso zinkulu kubomi nakwipropathi, nakwinqanaba lokuqala lokukhula kwayo. Zithwala iingozi ezahlukahlukeneyo ezinokuchaphazela ngokuphawulekayo ubomi kunye nepropathi nganye, njengokuza kwesiphango, izikhukula, imimoya ebhudla ngamandla, iinkanyamba, kunye nombane. Xa ezi zingozi zidibana, ziyasebenzisana kwaye zandisa kakhulu amathuba okuphulukana nobomi kunye nepropathi.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuze sikuxelele yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nesitshingitshane setropiki, ukuba siqala njani kwaye zithini iziphumo zaso.

Iimpawu eziphambili

inkanyamba yetropiki eyomeleleyo

Kwiminyaka engama-50 edlulileyo, iinkanyamba ziye zabangela iintlekele ezili-1.942 779.324, zabulala abantu abangama-1.407,6 XNUMX zaza zabangela ilahleko yezoqoqosho eqikelelwa kwi-XNUMX XNUMX lamawaka ezigidi zeerandi., elilingana nomlinganiselo wokufa kwabantu abangama-43 kunye nomonakalo owenzelwa iidola ezingama-78 ezigidi ngosuku.

Isitshingitshane setropikhi sisiphango esijikeleza ngokukhawuleza esisuka kulwandlekazi lwetropikhi kwaye sitsale amandla esiwadingayo ukuphuhlisa. Ineziko loxinzelelo oluphantsi elinamafu ajikelezayo esingise kwiindonga ezijikeleze "iliso", indawo esembindini yenkqubo apho kungekho mafu kwaye iimeko zemozulu zizolile. Ububanzi bayo buhlala bujikeleze iikhilomitha ezingama-200 ukuya kuma-500, kodwa inokufikelela kwi-1.000 yeekhilomitha.

iinkanyamba zetropikhi zivelisa imimoya ebhudla ngamandla, izantyalantyala zemvula, amaza amakhulu yaye, kwezinye iimeko, izandyondyo zemvula ezonakalisa ngokugqithisileyo nezikhukula eziselunxwemeni. Umoya uvuthuza ngokunxamnye newotshi kumntla weikhweyitha kwaye uvuthuza ngasekunene kwi-hemisphere esemazantsi. Izitshingitshane ezifikelela kwinqanaba elithile zithiywa ukhuseleko loluntu.

Esi siganeko semeteorology sinamagama ahlukeneyo ngokuxhomekeke kwindawo eyenzeka kuyo.

  • KuLwandle lweCaribbean, iGulf of Mexico, iNorth Atlantic, kunye nempuma kunye nombindi weNorth Pacific, le nto yemozulu yaziwa ngokuba "yinkanyamba."
  • Kwintshona yoMntla wePasifiki, ibizwa ngokuba yi "typhoon."
  • Kwi-Bay yaseBengal kunye noLwandle lwaseArabia, ibizwa ngokuba "yinkanyamba."
  • Kumazantsi-ntshona ePasifiki nakumazantsi-mpuma oLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya, zibizwa ngokuba “zizitshingitshane ezitshisayo.”
  • Kumazantsi-ntshona e-Indian Ocean, ibizwa ngokuba "yinkanyamba."

I-Tropiki kunye neentlobo zayo

iliso lesiphango

Izaqhwithi zihlala zinxulunyaniswa nemvula eninzi kakhulu, nto leyo enokukhokelela kwizikhukula. Zikwanxulunyaniswa nemimoya eyonakalisayo okanye eyingozi, kunye izantya zomoya womphezulu ezinokudlula kuma-300 km/h kwezona nkqubo zinamandla. Indibaniselwano yamaza aqhutywa ngumoya kunye noxinzelelo oluphantsi olusuka kwinkanyamba yetropikhi idala izandyondyo zesaqhwithi engaselunxwemeni: izandyondyo zemvula ezibaleka ukuya elunxwemeni ngesantya esiphezulu nangamandla amakhulu, zinokutshayela izakhiwo kwindlela yazo kwaye zidale umonakalo. unxweme kunye nokusingqongileyo.

Ngokusekwe kwizantya zomoya ezizinzileyo, iinkanyamba zetropikhi zichongwe ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Uxinzelelo lwetrophiki nemimoya enamandla ezinzileyo engaphantsi kwe-63 km/h;
  • Izaqhwithi zeTropiki, xa imimoya ephezulu egciniweyo ingaphezulu kwe-63 km / h, ezi ntlobo zezaqhwithi zibizwa;
  • Inkanyamba, isaqhwithi, isitshingitshane esinamandla, okanye isaqhwithi esinamandla (kuxhomekeke kwisitya) xa imimoya ephezulu egciniweyo idlula i-116 km/h.

Ubukhulu benkanyamba busukela kwiCandelo loku-1 ukuya kwiCandelo lesi-5 kwiSikali seNkanyamba yeSaffir-Simpson esetyenziswa kwiCaribbean, kwiGulf of Mexico, kuMntla weAtlantiki, nakwimpuma nakumbindi woMntla wePasifiki:

  • Iinkanyamba zodidi loku-1 zezo zinemimoya ephezulu ezinzileyo phakathi kwe-119 kunye ne-153 km/h.
  • Iinkanyamba zodidi loku-2 zezo zinemimoya ephezulu ezinzileyo phakathi kwe-154 kunye ne-177 km/h.
  • Iinkanyamba zodidi loku-3 zezo zinemimoya ephezulu ezinzileyo phakathi kwe-178 kunye ne-209 km/h.
  • Iinkanyamba zodidi loku-4 zezo zinemimoya ephezulu ezinzileyo phakathi kwe-210 kunye ne-249 km/h.
  • Iinkanyamba zodidi loku-5 zezo zinemimoya ephezulu ezinzileyo ngaphezulu kwe-249 km/h.

Impembelelo yezitshingitshane zetropikhi kunye nomonakalo abawubangelayo awuxhomekanga kuphela kwisantya somoya, kodwa nakwisantya sokuhamba, ixesha lomoya onamandla, ubungakanani bemvula ngexesha nasemva kokuwa komhlaba, kunye notshintsho. Isiquphe sesalathiso kunye namandla okutshintsha, ubume bayo (umzekelo, ubukhulu kunye namandla), kunye neempendulo zabantu kwiintlekele ezibangelwa zezi nkqubo.

Uqikelelo lweNkanyamba yeTropiki

isaqhwithi setropiki

Izazi ngemozulu zehlabathi zisebenzisa ubugcisa bale mihla obufana neesathelayithi, irada yemozulu kunye neekhompyutha ukuqikelela indlela yophuhliso lwenkanyamba. Izitshingitshane zeTropiki ngamanye amaxesha aziqikeleleki kuba zisuka zibe buthathaka ngequbuliso okanye zitshintshe indlela. Nangona kunjalo, izazi ngemozulu zisebenzisa ubugcisa bezi mini zize ziphuhlise iindlela zale mihla, njengemizekelo yokuqikelela imozulu ngamanani, ukuze kuqikelelwe kwangaphambili ikhondo lenkanyamba yetropikhi, kuquka utshintsho kwindlela esihamba ngayo nobunzulu bayo, ixesha nendawo esiwela kuyo, kwaye njani. ngokukhawuleza ibangela ukwehla.. Inkonzo yeMeteorological yeSizwe yelizwe elichaphazelekayo yiyo ke ngoko ejongene nokukhupha izilumkiso ezisemthethweni.

Kubakho iinkanyamba ezimalunga nama-80 nyaka ngamnye. Inkqubo yeWMO Tropical Cyclone ibonelela ngolwazi ngezi ngozi kunye neZiko leNgcaciso yeMozulu eMandundu I-WMO ikhupha izilumkiso ngenkanyamba ngexesha lokwenyani.

Isakhelo se-WMO sivumela ukusasazwa ngokubanzi nangexesha lolwazi lwenkanyamba. Ngenxa yentsebenziswano kunye nolungelelwaniso lwezizwe ngezizwe, inani elandayo lezaqhwithi zetropikhi libekwe esweni ukusuka kumanqanaba okuqala okubunjwa kwazo. WMO iququzelela imisebenzi kulo mmandla kwihlabathi jikelele nakwingingqi ngeNkqubo yeSitshingitshane seTropiki. Ngaphakathi kwenkqubo-sikhokelo yale nkqubo, imisebenzi yaMaziko eMeteorological oMmandla aKhethekileyo kwiZitshingitshane zeTropiki kunye namaZiko eZilumkiso zeNkanyamba yeTropiki atyunjwe yi-WMO iyenziwa. Indima yala maziko kukubona, ukubeka iliso, umkhondo kunye nokuqikelela zonke izaqhwithi zetropikhi kwimimandla yazo. La maziko anika isikhokelo kunye nezilumkiso kwangexesha kwiiNkonzo zeMeteorological and Hydrology yeSizwe.

Kuxinzelelo lwetropiki, imimoya inokufikelela kwisantya ukuya kuthi ga kwi-62 yeekhilomitha ngeyure (km/h), ibangele izikhukhula ezinkulu kunye nokonakalisa iziseko zophuhliso kwindawo. Kwisaqhwithi setropiki sinemimoya leyo Bahamba ukusuka kwi-63 ukuya kwi-117 yeekhilomitha ngeyure (km/h), izandyondyo zemvula zingabangela izikhukula kunye nazo zonke iintlobo zomonakalo. Ngamanye amaxesha zijika zibe ziinkanyamba.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nenkanyamba yeTropiki kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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