Liveliswa njani ivumba lomhlaba omanzi

ivumba le petrichor

Xa imvula inetha kumhlaba ochatshazelwe yimbalela emva kwexesha elide, kuphuma ivumba elikhethekileyo. Eli vumba liyaziwa njenge "ivumba lomhlaba omanzi" okanye "ivumba lemvula" ngolwimi lwemihla ngemihla. I-Petrichor ligama eliye layilwa ukuchaza eli vumba. Abantu abaninzi abazi indlela ivumba lomhlaba omanzi liveliswa ngayo.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela indlela iphunga lomhlaba omanzi liveliswa ngayo, ezinye zeempawu zayo kunye nembali.

Imvelaphi yegama elithi petrichor

indlela eliveliswa ngayo ivumba lomhlaba omanzi

Izazi ngendalo zaseOstreliya zaqulunqa igama elithi "petrichor" ngowe-1964. Igama elithi "preticor" okanye "pretichor" laqanjwa zizazinzulu ngokwakheka komhlaba ezimbini zaseOstreliya, uIsabel Joy Bear noRG Thomas ngowe-1964. Eli gama laziswa kwinqaku elapapashwa kwiNdalo (993/ 2) ) apho balichaza “njengevumba elimnandi eliveliswa yioli ekhutshwa zizityalo ezithile ngexesha lembalela.” Le oli Ifunxwa kumphezulu wamatye, ngakumbi amatye entlenga afana nodongwe, kwaye ikhululwe emoyeni xa idibana nemvula.. Ngokuqhelekileyo ihamba kunye nenye ikhompawundi ebizwa ngokuba yi-geosmin. Ukudityaniswa kwezi khompawundi kubangela ivumba elahlukileyo esilibonayo, kwaye xa kukho isaqhwithi, i-ozone isenokubakho.

Liveliswa njani ivumba lomhlaba omanzi

petrichor

Emva kophando olongezelelekileyo, iBear noThomas (1965) babonisa ukuba ioyile enevumba elimnandi inamandla okuthintela ukumila kwembewu nokukhula kwezityalo. Oku kubonisa ukuba izityalo zikhupha ezi oyile njengendlela yokukhusela ukuntshula ngexesha lembalela. Ivumba le oyile ngakumbi yomelele kwaye ifumaneka kwindawo yonke kwiindawo eziyintlango, ngakumbi ngamaxesha eemvula ezilandela ixesha elide lembalela. Ngaphezu koko, kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba i-petrichor, eyenziwe ngezinto ezingaphezulu kwamashumi amahlanu ezahlukeneyo, ayikaveliswa ngokufanelekileyo ngenxa yokwakheka kwayo.

I-Geosmin, igama lesiGrike elithetha "ivumba lomhlaba," yikhemikhali eveliswa yibhaktheriya iStreptomyces coelicolor kunye nezinye iicyanobacteria. Ezi bhaktheriya ezingenayo i-pathogenic gram-positive zixhaphake kwaye zinenzuzo kwimo engqongileyo ngenxa ukuthatha inxaxheba kwayo kwiinkqubo ezininzi ezinceda ukugcina ulungelelwano lwe-ecosystem. I-Geosmin yenziwa ngesenzo sezi bhaktheriya. Ezinye izazinzulu zithi ukuthanda kwethu ivumba lepetrichor, okanye “ivumba lomhlaba omanzi,” kulilifa elivela kookhokho bethu, ababenxulumanisa imvula nobomi kunye nokuphila.

Iingcali ze-Anthropologists zikholelwa ukuba ookhokho bethu benza unxibelelwano oluhle kunye neli vumba, njengoko lithetha ukuphela kwexesha eliyingozi lembalela kunye nokufika kwemvula efunekayo. Izifundo ezininzi nazo zibonise ukuba ivumba legeosmin likhokele izilwanyana ezithile, njengeenkamela, ukuze kufunyanwe amanzi yaye iye yanceda ezinye izityalo ukuba zisasazeke ngakumbi, njengaseAmazon.

Sebenzisa ivumba lomhlaba omanzi njengesiqholo

Kwi-2008, umdali we-Hermès perfume, uJean-Claude Ellena, wavelisa ivumba elimnandi nelihlaziyayo elikhumbuza umhlaba ogcwele amanzi. Umenzi weziqholo ngokwakhe uyichaza "njengembonakalo epholileyo yendalo ezalwa ngokutsha emva kwemvula." Ubuchwephesha bobugcisa bokubamba iphunga lomhlaba omanzi ebhotileni ayinto entsha. Kwiminyaka eliwaka eyadlulayo, amaxhwele, amaxhwele, oogqirha kunye neemonki eIndiya, eOman nakwiindawo ezithile zaseAsia nakuMbindi Mpuma babesele besenza i<em>mitti attar, okanye “isiqholo somhlaba,” esasisenza i-mitti attar. kukuchithwa kweoli ye-sandalwood kunye nodaka olomileyo olugubungela undoqo wexesha xa imvula yemvula inetha kumhlaba owomileyo.. Eli vumba lityhila umongo womhlaba ofumileyo xa amanzi ebuyela kuwo, nto leyo ethatyathelw’ indawo lilanga.

Ukutyhubela imbali yalo, eli vumba limnandi liye lafeza iinjongo ezahlukahlukeneyo, kuquka ukusetyenziswa kwalo njengeyeza zonyango, idini kwimibhiyozo yonqulo nanjengoko Ukucoceka okubalulekileyo kwiiklasi ze-elite kumakhaya abo kunye namabhotwe. Eli vumba limnandi lalinobutyebi obunamandla nobunxilisayo kangangokuba laliphantse libe sisiyobisi. Kwaba ngathi eli vumba likhupha ubushushu belizwe elomileyo nelomileyo, kodwa ngequbuliso lathuthuzelwa yizantyalantyala zemvula.

Imbali ye petrichor

indlela ivumba lomhlaba omanzi liveliswa ngayo

KuMbindi Mpuma, abefundisi noogqirha bamandulo babengekayiqondi le nto uJean-Claude Ellena awayesele eyifumene. Ivumba elimnandi lomhlaba omanzi emva kwemvula ngenxa yentsebenziswano enzima phakathi kwamanzi, umhlaba kunye ne-microorganisms ezahlukeneyo ezihlala apho. Eli vumba liye layitsala ingqalelo yezazinzulu kunye nabenzi bezithambiso, ukusa kwinqanaba lokuba ukususela ngowe-1964 igama elithi petrichor labelwa kuyo. Eli gama - elisuka kumagama esiGrike elithi petros (ilitye elithetha ilitye) nelithi ichor (elithetha ulwelo oluqukuqela emithanjeni yoothixo ngokwentsomi yamaGrike) - layilwa nguIsabel Joy Bear noRichard Thomas kwinqaku elapapashwa kwiphephancwadi iNature.

"UPetros Livumba elithozamisayo nelimnandi elihamba nemvula. Yindibaniselwano yezinto ezininzi, kubandakanywa iigesi zomoya, iimolekyuli eziveliswa ziibhaktheriya kwindawo efumileyo kunye neekhompawundi ezinuka kamnandi ezibekwe phezu kwamatye, udongwe kunye nezityalo.

Ngaphambi kokuba kune imvula, kuvakala ivumba elikhethekileyo emoyeni. Esi siganeko sinevumba elimnandi sisiphumo sokuhlangana komhlaba nesibhakabhaka. Njengoko umoya uzala kukufuma, udibana neendawo ezahlukeneyo ezomileyo, njenge asphalt, amatye, nokungcola. Izixa ezincinci zamanzi aqalayo zingena kule miphezulu, zikhupha iimolekyuli ezinevumba elimnandi. Ivumba elimnandi liya livakala ngakumbi xa kufika imvula. inkqubo ephawuleka ngakumbi kwiinyanga zasehlotyeni nangamaxesha embalela. Okukhona woma umhlaba, kokukhona kuphuma ii-oyile ezininzi ngexesha lemvula.

Ubunzulu bevumba elimnandi buxhomekeke kubungakanani bemixube eguquguqukayo ekhoyo kumphezulu apho imvula inetha khona. Ezi ngxubevange ziqokelelana ngexesha lembalela, nto leyo echaza isizathu sokuba ivumba elimnandi lihluthe kakhulu ngexesha leemvula zasehlotyeni. Ingcali uBarcenilla ichaza le nkqubo ngokweenkcukacha. Ivumba elimnandi lepetrichor ngumzekelo wenkangeleko yomhlaba, kodwa ifuna amanzi ukuze ibonakale. Ukuqokelela ioyile kunye neamolekyuli ezinevumba elimnandi, i-petrichor idinga amaxesha omileyo. Kungoko Ngexesha lemvula okanye kwiindawo zokufuma okuphezulu, ivumba layo alinamandla kangako.

Ivumba le petrichor lisemhlabeni kwaye lifumile, nangona kunjalo, kuxhomekeke kwimekobume (ubukho bamaminerali, amatye, iintsholongwane, izilwanyana kunye nezityalo ngexesha kunye nendawo yemvula) inokuqulatha ubuninzi bezinto ezifihlakeleyo. Ezi zinto zifihlakeleyo zinokuba luhlaza, ziqholwe, zinetyuwa, zinemithi, zinamanqaku okungunda, iiminerali, i-ozone, umoya omtsha okanye ivumba leshishini okanye le-asphalt.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nendlela iphunga lomhlaba omanzi owenziwe ngayo kunye neempawu zalo.


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