Yintoni indalo?

indalo

Isijikelezi-langa sethu uMhlaba yinkqubo entsonkothileyo apho kukho izigidi zonxibelelwano phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo nezinto zendalo. Inzima kwaye ibanzi kangangokuba akunakwenzeka ukuba ufunde iplanethi yoMhlaba ngokupheleleyo. Ukwahlulahlula iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo ezenza uMhlaba, kuchazwe iinkqubo ezine ezisezantsi. I-biosphere, i-geosphere, i-hydrosphere kunye ne-atmosfera.

Ubume bomhlaba buqokelela indawo yoMhlaba yomelele apho kufumaneka khona umaleko woMhlaba esihlala kuwo kwaye namawa ayavela. I-geosphere yenziwe ngamacandelo aliqela.

  1. Ubume bomhlaba, obuhlala buhluka phakathi kwe-500 kunye ne-1.000 yeemitha, ezenziwe ngumhlaba kunye namatye e-sedimentary.
  2. Umaleko ophakathi ohambelana nengqele yelizwekazi apho kufumaneka amathafa, iintlambo kunye neenkqubo zeentaba.
  3. Uluhlu olusezantsi lwe-basalt apho kufunyanwa khona uqweqwe lwaselwandle kwaye lunobukhulu obumalunga ne-10-20km.
  4. Ingubo yomhlaba.
  5. Umxholo womhlaba.

Ngolwazi oluthe vetshe malunga Umaleko woMhlaba Cofa kwikhonkco esikushiye nje.

Iatmosfera yinxalenye yegazi ejikeleze uMhlaba. Yenziwe ngumxube wegesi wenitrogen (78%), ioksijini (21%), kunye nezinye iigesi (1%). Yindawo apho amafu kunye nemvula, kwaye ukubaluleka kwayo yile nto yenza kube lula ukuba umhlaba ukwazi ukuhlala.

Umoya womhlaba
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Ubume bomoya woMhlaba

Ihydrosphere yinxalenye yoMhlaba ekuhlalwa kuyo ngamanzi ulwelo. Inxalenye yolwelo lulwandle, iilwandle, amachibi, imilambo, amathambeka angaphantsi komhlaba, njl. Kwaye indawo eqinileyo sisigqubuthelo semimandla esekhusini, imithambo yomkhenkce kunye nomkhenkce.

Inkqubo ephantsi komhlaba. I-Geosphere, i-hydrosphere, umoya kunye ne-biosphere

Njengoko ubona, inkqubo esezantsi nganye yoMhlaba yenziwe ngezinto ezahlukeneyo kwaye inayo umsebenzi ophambili ngobomi beplanethi. Kodwa enye esiza kugxila kuyo kweli nqaku yindawo yendalo. Yintoni indalo?

I-biosphere yindawo yonke enegesi, eqinileyo kunye neyobumanzi bomhlaba ohlala abantu abaphilayo. Zenziwe zombini ziindawo ze-lithosphere kunye neendawo ze-hydrosphere kunye ne-atmosfere apho ubomi bunokwenzeka khona.

Iimpawu zebhayoloji

Ngoku ukuba uyazi ukuba yintoni i-biosphere, makhe sibone ukuba zeziphi iimpawu zayo. I-biosphere yenziwe ngumaleko omncinci wobungakanani obungaqhelekanga. Kuba yinkqubo eqokelela imimandla yomhlaba apho ubomi bukhona kunzima ngakumbi ukuseta imida apho i-biosphere iqala kwaye iphela. Kodwa ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi, i-biosphere inabela ukuya kuthi ga kwi-10 yeekhilomitha ngaphezulu komphakamo wolwandle kwaye malunga ne-10 yeemitha ngaphantsi komgangatho womhlaba apho kungena khona iingcambu zemithi kunye nezityalo kunye nezinto ezincinci ezikhoyo.

Kwindawo yaselwandle, ikwabandakanya neendawo zamanzi omhlaba kunye nobunzulu bolwandle apho ubomi bukhona. Ngaphandle kwendalo kunye nemida esinyanzelekileyo, akukho bomi basemhlabeni.

Njengokuba besesiphawulile, ubomi kwindalo ephilayo abubonakali njengoluhlu oluqhubekayo lwezilwanyana, izityalo kunye neentsholongwane (iintsholongwane kunye neentsholongwane) kodwa ke ngabantu beentlobo ezahlukeneyo. Ezi ntlobo (ukuza kuthi ga ngoku zingaphaya kwezigidi ezibini zeentlobo ezaziwayo) ezisasaziweyo zihlala kulo mmandla ngokwahlukileyo. Abanye bafuduka, abanye boyisa kwaye abanye banommandla ngakumbi kwaye bakhusela indawo yokuhlala.

Imiba ye-Biotic kunye ne-biotic ye-biosphere

I-biosphere ngumzekelo inkqubo. Sichaza inkqubo njengaleyo iseti yamacandelo asebenzisana kunye, kunye neearhente zangaphandle, ngendlela ezenza ukuba zisete ukusebenza phakathi. Kungenxa yoko le nto indalo ichazwe ngokugqibeleleyo njengenkqubo kuba ineseti yeentlobo ezinxibelelana enye nenye, kwaye zona, zinxibelelana nezinye izinto ezingezizo ezendalo, kodwa zeze-geosphere, i-atmosfera kunye ne-hydrosphere. .

Ukuze sibe ngumzekelo sijikela kwizinto, umhlaba, amanzi nomoya. Iintlanzi zihlala kwi-hydrosphere, kodwa zona, kwi-biosphere, kuba inxibelelana namanzi alulwelo kwaye ihlala kwindawo apho kukho ubomi. Kuyafana nakwiintaka. Zibhabha ngaphezulu komaleko womhlaba obizwa ngokuba zii-atmosfera obizwa ngokuba yi-atmosfera, kodwa zihlala kwiindawo ezinobomi bendalo.

Ke ngoko, kwindalo ephilayo kukho izinto eziphilayo ezimelwe lulo lonke uluntu lwezinto eziphilayo ezinxibelelana kunye nezinye iisistim zomhlaba. Olo hlanga lwezinto eziphilayo lwenziwe ngabavelisi, abathengi kunye nokubola. Kodwa zikhona izinto ezinqabileyo ezisebenzisana nezinto eziphilayo. Ezo zinto yioksijini, amanzi, ubushushu, ilanga, njl. Iseti yezi zinto, biotic kunye nebiotic, zenza okusingqongileyo.

Amanqanaba ombutho kwi-Biosphere

Kwi-biosphere, ngokubanzi, izinto eziphilayo azihlali zodwa, kodwa kufuneka zisebenzisane nezinye izinto eziphilayo kunye nezinto ezinobomi. Kungenxa yoko le nto, kwindalo kukho amanqanaba ohlukeneyo ombutho. Kuxhomekeke kunxibelelwano lwezinto eziphilayo kunye nokuba makhulu kangakanani amaqela, kukho abantu, abahlali kunye neenkqubo zezinto eziphilayo.

Lwabantu

Eli nqanaba lombutho lwenzeka kwindalo xa izinto ezithile zohlobo oluthile lwezityalo, izilwanyana okanye ii-microorganisms zinxulumana ngexesha kunye nakwiindawo eziqhelekileyo. Oko kukuthi, iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezityalo nezilwanyana Ukuhlalisana kwindawo enye kwaye basebenzise izixhobo ezifanayo ukuze baphile kwaye bandise.

Xa kubhekiswa kubemi, indawo apho iintlobo zifumaneka kunye nexesha labemi kufuneka zimiselwe, kuba ayihlali ngexesha ngenxa yezinto ezinje ngokunqongophala kokutya, ukhuphiswano okanye utshintsho kwindalo esingqongileyo. Namhlanje, ngesenzo sabantu, uninzi lwabantu aluphili ngenxa yokuba izakha-mzimba kwindawo abahlala kuzo zingcolisiwe okanye zithotyiwe.

Ikati yabemi

Uluntu lwebhayoloji

Uluntu lwendalo lolunye apho abantu ababini okanye ngaphezulu bezinto eziphilayo bahlala khona. Oko kukuthi, uluntu ngalunye inxibelelana nabanye abantu kunye nendalo ebangqongileyo. Olu luntu lwebhayiloji lubandakanya yonke into ephilayo yeentlobo ezahlukeneyo ezinxibelelanayo. Umzekelo, ihlathi, ichibi, njl. Yimizekelo yoluntu lwendalo, kuba kukho iseti yeentlanzi, izilwanyana eziphila emhlabeni nasemanzini, izilwanyana ezirhubuluzayo, ulwelwe kunye neentsholongwane ezomeleleyo ezinxibelelana, kwaye zona zinxibelelana nezinto ezinje ngamanzi (ekuphefumlweni), isixa ukukhanya okubetha echibini kunye nentlenge.

Inkqubo yendalo

Inkqubo yendalo esingqongileyo lelona nqanaba likhulu nelintsokothileyo lombutho. Kuyo, uluntu lwebhayiloji lunxibelelana nendalo ephilayo ukuze yenze inkqubo elungeleleneyo. Sichaza indalo njenge iseti yezinto eziphilayo kunye nebiotic zommandla othile onxibelelana nabanye. Abantu abahlukeneyo kunye noluntu oluhlala kwi-ecosystems luxhomekeke komnye nomnye nakwizinto ze-abiotic. Umzekelo, ii-amphibians zifuna izinambuzane zondle, kodwa zikwafuna amanzi kunye nokukhanya ukuze ziphile.

Unxibelelwano phakathi kwendalo kunye nebiotic yenzeka izihlandlo ezininzi kwindalo. Xa izityalo photosynthesize, batshintsha iigesi nomoya. Xa isilwanyana siphefumla, xa sisitya size emva koko siyiphelise inkunkuma, njl. Oku kunxibelelana kokusingqongileyo kwe-biotic kunye ne-abiotic kuguqulela kutshintshiselwano lwamandla rhoqo phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo kunye nokusingqongileyo.

Amanqanaba ombutho. Umntu ngamnye, uluntu, uluntu kunye ne-ecosystem

Ngenxa yokuntsonkotha kokunxibelelana, ukuxhomekeka kohlobo kunye nokusebenza abazalisekisayo, ulwandiso lwendalo Kunzima kakhulu ukuseka. Inkqubo ye-ikhosistim (ecosystem) ayisiyiyo enye, engenakusahlula iyunithi esebenzayo kodwa yenziwe ngamacandelo amancinci amaninzi anokusebenzisana kwawo kunye nokusebenza kwawo.

Kwimixokomelwano yokuphilisana kwendalo kukho iikhonsepthi ezimbini ezinolwalamano olusenyongweni kuba izidalwa zixhomekeke kuzo. Okokuqala Indawo yokuhlala. Indawo yokuhlala yindawo apho izinto eziphilayo kwaye zikhule khona. Indawo yokuhlala yenziwe ngendawo apho umzimba uphila khona kunye nezinto eziphilayo apho zinxibelelana khona. Indawo yokuhlala inokuba nkulu njengechibi okanye incinci njengendlwana.

Iindidi zamakhaya endalo

Olunye uluvo olunxulumene ne-ecosystem ngu niche yendalo. Oku kuchaza umsebenzi onomzimba kwindalo. Ngamanye amagama, indlela apho umzimba uhambelana nezinto eziphilayo kunye nebiotic. Banokuba zizinto ze-heterotrophic, scavenger, decomposers, njl. Kunokuthiwa i-niche yendalo ngumsebenzi okanye umsebenzi onento ephilayo ngaphakathi kwendalo ehlala kuyo.

I-niche yendalo

Njengoko ubona, i-biosphere yinkqubo entsonkothileyo apho kukho ubudlelwane obuninzi obumisela ubomi emhlabeni. Kuyimfuneko ukugcina i-ecosystem kude Ungcoliseko kunye nokuthotywa isidima ukuze imisebenzi yethu ikwazi ukugcina lonke ubudlelwane bezinto eziphilayo. Umzimba ngamnye kwindalo esingqongileyo uzalisekisa owawo umsebenzi kwaye loo seti yemisebenzi yiyo eyenza ukuba sikwazi ukuhlala kwiimeko ezisempilweni. Kungenxa yoko le nto kubaluleke kakhulu ukukhusela nokulondoloza indalo yethu ukuze siqhubeke nokuphila ngokulungileyo umgangatho wobomi.


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