Imvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo

iimvula ezinetyhefu

Phakathi kwezinye zeziphumo ezimandundu zongcoliseko lomoya yimvula eneasidi. Le mvula inokubangelwa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo. Omnye wabo ngu imvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo. Ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo lukhupha izixa ezikhulu zeegesi eziyingozi emoyeni ezinokubangela imvula eneasidi.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga nemvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo, zithini iziphumo kunye nendlela eveliswa ngayo.

Yintoni imvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo

iigesi eziyingozi ezivela kwiintaba-mlilo

Zimbini iindidi zemvula eneasidi, eyenziwe (eyenziwe ngumntu) neyenzeka ngokwemvelo, ebangelwa ziigesi zentaba-mlilo.

imvula ye-anthropogenic acid Iveliswa ngokusisiseko kuphuhliso lwemizi-mveliso, ukutshiswa kwamafutha efosili okanye ukutshiswa kohlaza., evelisa iigesi ezingcolisayo ezingena kwiatmosfera ezibangela umonakalo ongenakulungiseka. Xa ezi zixhobo zomoya zingcolileyo zidibana nomphunga wamanzi asemoyeni, zibuyela njengemvula eneasidi.

Imvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo iveliswa xa amathontsi amanzi emvula enyibilika enganyamezelekiyo i-sulfuric acid (H2SO4) kunye ne-nitric acid (HNO3). Zombini i-acids zenziwe ngokusabela kwesulfure trioxide (SO3) kunye ne-nitrogen dioxide (NO2) ngamanzi (H2O). Ngenxa yoko, i-acidity yamanzi imvula ifikelela kwinqanaba elibalulekileyo le-3,5 ukuya ku-5,5, xa kuthelekiswa ne-pH eqhelekileyo yamanzi emalunga ne-6,5.

Iziphumo zemvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo

yintoni imvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo

Ebantwini inokuchaphazela ukuphefumla, ngakumbi kubantwana kunye nabantu abadala abanesifo semiphunga esingapheliyo. Inokubangela ukukhohlela kunye nokuminxa; ukwanda kwamazinga e-asthma engapheliyo kunye ne-acute, i-bronchitis ebukhali, kunye ne-emphysema; utshintsho kwinkqubo yokhuselo lwemiphunga, leyo baxhatshazwa kubantu abanezifo zentliziyo kunye ne-pulmonary; ukucaphuka kwamehlo kunye nomgudu wokuphefumla, Njl

Iziphumo zemvula eneasidi emhlabeni nakwizityalo:

Yandisa ubumuncu bamanzi emilanjeni nasemachibini, oko kubangela umonakalo kubomi basemanzini obufana nentlanzi (intlanzi yomlambo) kunye nezityalo. Kwakhona kwandisa ubumuncu bomhlaba, nto leyo iguqulela kwiinguqu ekubunjweni kwayo, ivelisa i-leaching (ukuhlamba) yezondlo ezibalulekileyo zezityalo, ezifana ne: calcium, i-nitrogen, i-phosphorus, njl., kwaye idibanisa isinyithi esinetyhefu njenge-cadmium, i-nickel manganese, ilothe, imekyuri, chromium, njl. Zikwangeniswa kwimisinga yamanzi kunye namatyathanga okutya ngale ndlela.

Uhlaza oluchache ngokuthe ngqo kwimvula eneasidi luyachaphazeleka kungekuphela nje iziphumo zokuthotywa komhlaba, kodwa kunye nomonakalo othe ngqo, nto leyo inokukhokelela kwimililo.

Yintoni amandla emvula eneasidi?

imvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo

Kungakhathaliseki ukuba zivela phi na, enoba zezemveliso okanye zezendalo, iigesi ezingcolisayo eziphuma emhlabeni ziye emoyeni, emva kwexesha elithile nasebusika, zinokukhukulisa ukuze zenze oko kubizwa ngokuba yimvula eneasidi. Ngokuxhomekeke kwindlela kunye nesantya somoya, oku kuya kuba yindawo echaphazelekayo apho ziveliswa khona. Elinye igama liyi-sedimentation eyomileyo, apho ungcoliseko luhlala ngaphandle kwemvula, oko kukuthi, luhlala phantsi kobunzima balo.

Imvula eneasidi ayinakuthintelwa njengoko iveliswa bubugcisa obufuna ukuba umntu aphile. Nangona kunjalo, impembelelo yayo inokuncitshiswa ngokuphumeza iindlela ezifanelekileyo. Ukuthintela umonakalo kwinkqubo yokuphefumla, abahlali abakufutshane banokubeka iitshefu ezimanzi kwiimpumlo zabo kwaye bahlale kude nendawo yesiganeko kwiimeko ezinzima, njengoko ukuvezwa ixesha elide kunokukhokelela kumonakalo ongenakuguqulwa njengomhlaza wolusu.

Imvula eneasidi kwintaba-mlilo yaseLa Palma

Ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo eLa Palma lubandakanya ukukhutshwa kweegesi ezinjengomphunga wamanzi, ikharbon diokside okanye i-sulphur dioxide. Ukwanda koxinzelelo lwesulfure dioxide (SO2), igesi evelisa imvula eneasidi xa kunetha imvula, ibalulekile.

Irhasi ekhutshwe lugqabhuko-dubulo nayo iye yafunyanwa ngamaxesha amaninzi njengongcoliseko lomoya ophuma kwimizi-mveliso. Ngenxa yothutho lwe-atmospheric, ukukhutshwa kwe-SO2 kunokuvelisa imvula eneasidi kumawaka eekhilomitha kude. Ngenxa yoko, imvula eneasidi iwonakalisa amahlathi akumazwe angaphandle kwalapho kukhutshwa khona igesi engcolisayo.

Ugxininiso oluphezulu lwe-SO2 lufunyenwe phezu kweZiqithi zaseCanary, okusengqiqweni. Oku kwenza ukuba imvula esemantla nasempuma yesiqithi ibe nokuguquguquka okukhulu, kunye nemvula ene asidi ngakumbi kunesiqhelo kunye ne-pH engaphantsi kancinci. Nangona kunjalo, ukukhutshwa kwe-SO2 kuchatshazelwe ziintaba-mlilo ngoko umgangatho wehla kakhulu. Iimodeli zoqikelelo lwe-atmospheric zacebisa ukuba irhasi yahanjiswa yasiwa empuma nakumbindi wepeninsula, ngakumbi kumbindi nakwimpuma.

Ngaphandle kwayo yonke le nto,  Iimvula kwiiCanary Islands kulindeleke ukuba zibe ne-acidic ngakumbi kwiintsuku ezilandelayo emva kogqabhuko-dubulo kodwa azizange zibe nengozi yempilo, okanye ukuba umoya we-atmospheri yesulfure dioxide usondele kumphezulu.

Kwezi meko, iimpembelelo zesulphur dioxide ekhutshwe ziintaba-mlilo kwiimeko zemozulu engaphezulu kunye nomgangatho womoya ubuncinci. Ukongeza, ngezinye izihlandlo ukukhutshwa kwale gesi kuye kwafikelela eSpeyin ngenxa yogqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo kwelinye icala loLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki.

Iziphumo kokusingqongileyo

Sibonile ukuba imvula eneasidi efika ngexesha ayibonisi mngcipheko kwimpilo okanye kokusingqongileyo. Nangona kunjalo, xa le nto ixhaphake, iba nemiphumo emibi. Makhe sibone ukuba ziyintoni na:

  • Iilwandle zinokuphulukana nezinto ezahlukeneyo eziphilayo kunye nemveliso. Ukuhla kwe-pH yamanzi olwandle kungonakalisa i-phytoplankton, umthombo wokutya kwizinto eziphilayo ezahlukeneyo kunye nezilwanyana ezinokuguqula ikhonkco lokutya kwaye zibangele ukutshabalala kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo zaselwandle.
  • Amanzi angaphakathi elizweni nawo ayagada ngesantya esikhawulezayo, into ekhathazayo ngokukodwa ukuba umntu uthatha ingqalelo ukuba, nangona kuphela i-1% yamanzi eMhlabeni amatsha, i-40% yeentlanzi zihlala kuyo. Ukufakwa kwe-Acidification kwandisa ukuxinana kwee-ion zetsimbi, ngokuyintloko i-aluminiyam ion, enokubulala iintlanzi ezininzi, ii-amphibians, kunye nezityalo zasemanzini kumachibi aneasidi. Kwakhona, iintsimbi ezinzima zingena emanzini aphantsi komhlaba, angasakulungeli ukuselwa.
  • Emahlathini, umhlaba ophantsi we-pH kunye noxinzelelo lwesinyithi olufana ne-aluminiyam luthintela uhlaza ekubeni lufunxe kakuhle amanzi kunye nezondlo ezifunekayo. Oku kuzonakalisa iingcambu, kucothise ukukhula, kwaye kwenza isityalo sibe ethe-ethe ngakumbi kwaye sisengozini yezifo kunye nezinambuzane.
  • Imvula eneasidi ikwachaphazela ubugcisa, imbali kunye nelifa lenkcubeko. Ukongeza kwi-corroding izinto zetsimbi zezakhiwo kunye neziseko zophuhliso, kunokonakalisa ukubonakala kwezikhumbuzo ngaphakathi kwazo. Owona monakalo mkhulu uyenzeka kwizakhiwo ze-calcareous, ezifana ne-marble, echithwa ngokuthe ngcembe ngesenzo se-asidi namanzi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nemvula eneasidi evela kwintaba-mlilo, ukuba iveliswa njani kwaye zithini iziphumo zayo.


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