Imbali yetheyibhile ye periodic

e izinto zekhemikhali

Ukutyhubela imbali, abantu bebetsaleleka ekuqondeni ukuntsonkotha kwehlabathi elisingqongileyo. Ekuqaleni kwakukholelwa ukuba yonke into inokuncitshiswa ibe zizinto ezine ezisisiseko: amanzi, umhlaba, umlilo nomoya. Nangona kunjalo, njengoko ubuchule bokulinga buhambela phambili ekuhambeni kwexesha, kuye kwacaca ukuba uhlobo lwento intsonkothe ​​ngakumbi kunokuba bekucingelwa ngaphambili. Yiyo loo nto imfuneko yokulungelelanisa izinto zekhemikhali kunye netafile ye periodic. I imbali yetheyibhile ye periodic Iquka yonke into ukusuka kwimvelaphi ukuya kwiinguqulelo esinazo namhlanje.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ngembali yetheyibhile ye periodic kunye nendaleko ethe gqolo ebenayo kuyo yonke imbali.

Iimpawu eziphambili

imbali yetheyibhile ye periodic

Itheyibhile ye periodic izalisekisa imisebenzi emininzi kwinkalo yekhemistri. Sisixhobo esilungelelanisa kwaye siyalela zonke izinto ezaziwa ngokusekwe kulwakhiwo lweeathom zazo kunye neempawu. Ngokwenza oko, Inceda iikhemisti ziqikelela indlela yokuziphatha kwezinto kunye nokusabela kwazo nezinye izinto. Ukongeza, itheyibhile yeperiodic inika ulwazi olubalulekileyo malunga neempawu ezibonakalayo kunye neekhemikhali zezinto, kubandakanywa nenombolo ye-athomu, isimboli kunye nobunzima be-athomu. Ikwasisixhobo esiyimfuneko ekuchongeni nasekubizeni izinto ezintsha ezithe zafunyanwa. Ngokubanzi, itheyibhile ye periodic ihlala iyinxalenye esisiseko kwaye iyimfuneko kwisifundo sekhemistri.

Ekuqaleni yadalwa nguDimitri Mendeleev, usokhemesti waseRashiya ngo-1869. Kuthathwa ngokubanzi njengesityhilelo esibaluleke kakhulu kwimichiza. Ulungelelwaniso oluntsonkothileyo lweziqalelo luququzelele ukukwazi ukuqikelela ukufunyanwa kwezinto ezintsha, ngelixa likwavumela ukulandelwa kophando lwethiyori kwizakhiwo ebezingekaphononongwa ngaphambili.

Itheyibhile yeperiodic ngoku yenziwe ngamacandelo ali-118, alungelelaniswe abe yimiqolo esixhenxe ethe tye eyaziwa ngokuba yi "periods" kunye neekholamu ezithe nkqo ezili-18 ezibizwa ngokuba "ngamaqela." UDimitri Mendeleev, usokhemisti waseRussia, uthathwa njengegalelo elibalulekileyo kwimbali yekhemistri. nangona engazange afumane ibhaso leNobel. Njengembeko kwiminikelo yakhe, ikhemikhali enenombolo ye-athomu engu-101 kwitheyibhile yeperiodic yabizwa ngokuba yi-mendelevium (Md) ngo-1955.

Imbali yetheyibhile ye periodic

imbali yoluhlu lweperiodic

Ukuqulunqwa kwetheyibhile yeperiodic kwaba sisiphumo sokuqokelelwa ngokuthe ngcembe kolwazi kunye nezinto ezifunyenweyo kwikhemistri. Ngowe-1789, uAntoine Lavoisier wapapasha uludwe lwezinto ezingama-33 kwincwadi yakhe yesikhokelo ethi Elementary Treatise of Chemistry. Ngowe-1817, UJohann Döbereiner waqaphela ukuba ezinye izinto zinokudityaniswa ngokweesethi ezintathu ezineempawu zekhemikhali ezifanayo.

Kwangowe-1862, u-Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois walungelelanisa izakhi kwinxeba elijikelezayo elijikeleze umbhobho ngokusekelwe kubunzima bazo beathom. Ngasekupheleni kwaloo nyaka, uJohn Newlands wenze isiphakamiso sokuba izakhi ziphindaphinde iimpawu zazo zonke izinto zesibhozo, ngokufanayo neoctave yomculo. Ekugqibeleni, ngo-1869, uDimitri Mendeleev wapapasha inguqulelo yakhe yePeriodic Table, elungelelanisa ielementi ngokwandisa iintsimbi zeathom nokushiya izithuba zezinto ezingafunyaniswanga. Eli lungiselelo lavumela uMendeleev ukuba aqikelele iipropati zezi zinto zingafunyanwanga, ezikhokelela ekufumaneni i-gallium kunye ne-germanium.

Imvelaphi kunye neziqalo

Imvelaphi yale ntsomi ibuyela kumaxesha amandulo, xa iintanda-bulumko zangaphambi kukaSocrates zachaza kuqala izinto ezine ezisisiseko: amanzi, umlilo, umoya nomhlaba. Ezi zindululo zokuqala zaye zandiswa kamva nguPlato noAristotle, abathi bazisa umbono wento yesihlanu eyaziwa ngokuba yi-quintessence okanye i-ether. Intsimi ye-alchemy, kunye nomfanekiso ohamba phambili weParacelsus, yakhiwe phezu kwezi ngcamango kwaye yazisa iingcamango zokuguqulwa kunye nethiyori yesulfure kunye ne-mercury. Into entsha, ityuwa, yongezwa kumxube, kwaye ukufunyanwa kwe-zinc kwaphucula ngakumbi ukuqonda kwethu kwezi zinto zibalulekileyo.

Ngenkulungwane ye-1817, izazinzulu kwicandelo lekhemistri zaqala ukuhlulahlula izinto ezisekelwe kwiimpawu ekwabelwana ngazo zeempawu zabo zomzimba kunye neekhemikhali. Ebudeni bexesha elisusela kowe-1829 ukusa kowe-XNUMX, usokhemisti waseJamani ogama linguJohan Dobereiner wenza inkqubela ekuhleleni izinto ezithile zibe ngamaqela amathathu. La maqela ayebizwa ngokuba ziitriad ngenxa yokufana kwemichiza yawo. Omnye wabo bathathu Yayiqulunqwe ngeklorini (Cl), ibromine (Br) kunye ne-iodine (I). UDobereiner waqaphela ukuba ubunzima be-atom yebromine babufana ngokumangalisayo ne-avareji yobunzima beklorine kunye ne-iodine.

Ngelishwa, ukuhlelwa kwazo zonke iziqalelo zibe ziintathu akubanga yimpumelelo kwaye iinzame ezenziweyo zokucebisa ulwahlulo lweziqalelo bezinganelanga.

Ukuzivelela kwembali kwitheyibhile ye periodic

itheyibhile yamandulo yamaxesha

Ngo-1862, isazi sejoloji saseFransi esigama linguChancourtois safumanisa ipateni yeperiodicity phakathi kwezinto zetheyibhile. Kwiminyaka emibini kamva, uChancourtois wadibana noNewlands, isazi samachiza esiliNgesi, ukuze banikele uMthetho weOctaves, owawusithi izakhiwo ziphindaphinda izinto ezisibhozo. Nangona kunjalo, Lo mthetho wawulinganiselwe kwizinto kuphela ukuya kwi-calcium. Ngaphandle kokungonelanga kwalo, olu luhlu lwabeka isiseko sophuhliso lwetheyibhile yeperiodic.

Embindini wenkulungwane ye-63, izazinzulu zazichonge izinto ezahlukeneyo ezingama-1860, kodwa ukuvumelana kwakungekho phakathi kweekhemisti malunga nokuhlelwa kunye nokulungelelaniswa kwezi zinto. INkongolo yaMazwe ngaMazwe yeeKhemikhali yokusungulwa, eyayibanjelwe eKarlsruhe, eJamani, ngowe-XNUMX, yayijolise ekuphenduleni le mibuzo yaye yangqineka isisiganeko esibalulekileyo.

Kwinkongolo, uStanislao Cannizzaro, usokhemisti waseTaliyane, ichaze ngokucacileyo ingqikelelo yobunzima be-atom, obubunzima beathom obunxulumeneyo bento. Umsebenzi wabo waphefumlela abathathi-nxaxheba abathathu abancinci kwinkomfa, uWilliam Odling, uJulius Lothar Meyer, kunye noDimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, ukudala iitheyibhile zokuqala ezibanzi zokulungelelanisa izinto.

Ngowe-1869, uDimitri Mendeleev, usokhemisti waseRashiya, wapapasha itheyibhile yakhe yokuqala yezinto ezicwangciswe ngokunyuka kobunzima beathom. Kwangaxeshanye, usokhemisti waseJamani ogama linguLothar Meyer wapapasha eyakhe itheyibhile yeperiodikhi, kodwa enezinto eziyalelwe ukusuka kowona bunzima ukuya kobona bunzima beathom. I Itafile kaMendeleev yakhiwe ngokuthe tye, enezithuba ebezigcinelwe izinto ebezingekafunyanwa ngelo xesha.

Igalelo likaMendeleev kwinkalo yekhemistry yaba yinguqu ngokwenene. Wenza uqikelelo kwaye washiya izikhewu kwitheyibhile yeperiodic yezinto ezazingekafunyaniswa, kuquka igallium (1875), scandium (1879), germanium (1887), kunye netechnetium (1937). Ngo-1913, i-chemist yeNgesi egama linguHenry Moseley yenza izifundo ze-X-reyi ukufumanisa intlawulo yenyukliya okanye inombolo yeathom yento nganye. Esebenzisa le ndlela, wakwazi ukwahlulahlula iziqalelo ngokwendlela enyuka ngayo inani leathom, inkqubo esasetyenziswayo namhlanje.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nembali yetafile ye periodic kunye nokuvela kwayo.


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