Iliso lesiphango

iliso lesiphango

El iliso lesiphango kufana ne "fingerprint" yenkqubo, esixelela okuninzi malunga neenkqubo ezenzeka kwinkanyamba ngelo xesha. Ababikezeli basebenzisa olu lwazi njengesixhobo sokuhlalutya isitshingitshane ukuze baqikelele ukuba isaqhwithi siya kuvela njani kwiiyure ezizayo. Xa sithetha "ngeliso lenkqubo yesitshingitshane" sibhekisa kwelo ziko lingenamafu kwaye libonakala lizolile, nokuba yinkanyamba okanye isitshingitshane setropiki kunye nenkanyamba, kuba yinto efanayo, kuphela ikhula kwindawo eyahlukileyo. .

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuze ukwazi malunga neso leqhwithi, indlela eyakhiwe ngayo kunye neziphi iimpawu zabo.

Yintoni iliso lenkanyamba

iziko loxinzelelo oluphantsi

Lo ngummandla ophantse ube setyhula olinganayo kumbindi wenkanyamba yetropikhi. Kuyo isibhakabhaka esicacileyo sibonakala, kwaye kwi-axis ye-symmetry, umoya ulula. Inokulinganisa ukusuka kwi-8 ukuya kuma-200 km ububanzi, nangona uninzi ludla ngokuba phakathi kwe-30 kunye ne-60 km (i-Weatherford ne-Grey 1988).

Olona xinzelelo luphantsi kwinqanaba lomphezulu lurekhodwa apho, kwaye ubushushu obuphezulu bukwi-troposphere ephakathi. I-NOAA ichaze ukuba ubushushu be-intraocular kumphakamo we-12 km inokogqitha ubushushu obungaphandle kwesaqhwithi nge-10°C. ekubeni umoya ohlayo wawushushu ngokucinezelwa.

ukubunjwa kweliso lenkanyamba

ngaphakathi kwiliso lenkanyamba

Olona matshini uvelisa amehlo usengumbandela oxoxwa yizazinzulu. Enye inkcazo enokwenzeka kukuba iliso lisiphumo se-gradient yoxinzelelo oluthe nkqo, olunxulumene ne-chear kunye ne-radial dispersion evela kwi-high-altitude tangential winds. Enye ingqikelelo yeyokuba iliso lenza xa ubushushu obufihlileyo bukhutshwa eludongeni ukunyanzela iliso ukuba liwele lijonge ezantsi.

I-convection iququzelelwe ngamabhanti emvula (emxinwa kwaye yande), ihambelana nomoya othe tye, ujikeleza ukuya kumbindi wenkqubo ye-cyclonic (ngenxa yamandla e-Coriolis ngenxa yokujikeleza koMhlaba). Imimoya yayincopho kumanqanaba asezantsi, ibangela ukuba umoya ongentla woqhwithela wahlukane. Ukujikeleza ke ngoko kubangelwa kukudibana komoya ofudumeleyo, ofumileyo kumphezulu (ibhanti elinyukayo), elithi ke lijike litshone phezulu esibhakabhakeni (amabhanti emvula asemacaleni).

Umoya otshonayo ufudunyezwa ngokwe-adiabatically kwaye ekugqibeleni ungene kumbindi wenkanyamba, apho iqela lemvula lenza udonga olujikeleze iliso. Ngenxa yoko, iliso alibonakali linamafu, nto leyo enokuba sisiphumo iziphumo centrifugal ukuba ngokuguqukayo ukuzoba ubunzima bamehlo eludongeni kunye nomoya we-downdraft ukuhlawula ukuhanjiswa komoya ofumileyo eludongeni olufanayo, yachaza i-AOML.

"Udonga lwamehlo" kunye nezinye iindlela

ukwakhiwa kweziko lenkanyamba

Iliso libotshwe "ludonga lwamehlo" olubandakanya amafu aphezulu kakhulu. Lo msesane unomoya owomeleleyo nowonakalisayo kumphakamo womphezulu. Umoya wehla kancinci ngamehlo, kodwa uqukuqela unyuke kakhulu ngaphaya kweendonga.

Izaqhwithi eziqatha (Udidi 3 okanye ngaphezulu) bahlala besenza into ebizwa ngokuba yi-eyewall yesibini ngaphaya kwe-eyewall yokuqala yokuqala. Basenokude babonise iindonga zamehlo ezimbini nangaphezulu.

Ububanzi beliso lenkanyamba enkulu inokuncitshiswa ukuya kwi-10-25 yeekhilomitha, ngelo xesha iimvula ezimbalwa zangaphandle zinokuququzelela isangqa sangaphandle seendudumo, zihamba kancinane zingena nangaphandle. Ikakhulu ukufuma kunye nesantya. Oku kunciphisa udonga lwangaphakathi kwaye lubangele ukuba lunyamalale, lutshintshwe ludonga lwangaphandle, oku kubizwa ngokuba "ngumjikelezo wokutshintshwa kweso".

Ngeli nqanaba, isitshingitshane seTropiki siqala ukuba buthathaka ixesha elifutshane, kodwa emva koko isiqhwithi sinokugcina amandla aso angaphambili, okanye (kwezinye iimeko) sifumane ukuqina ngakumbi, njengoko kwenzeka ngaphambi kokuba iNkanyamba uAndrew yenze i-landfall eMiami (1992) . yayisesinye sezitshingitshane zetropiki ezahlasela iUnited States ngenkulungwane yama-XNUMX.

kutheni kuthe cwaka nje

Esona sixhobo sivelisa eli ziko kusaxoxwa ngaso yaye siphenjelelwa ziingcamango ezahlukahlukeneyo. Ukubonisa ngomzekelo wemihla ngemihla, ngathi yinto yokomisa impahla: Ngelixa ujikeleza, isithuba siyadalwa embindini. Kwenzeka into efanayo kwinkanyamba, apho imikhosi emininzi, kuquka ne-centrifugal, yenza iziko libe yindawo ecocekileyo.

Kukho neemeko apho, emehlweni, ngenxa yobushushu obuphezulu kunye nobukho bomoya oshushu, amanzi aphuphumayo atsalwa ngokukhawuleza phezulu, abangela ukuba umoya wome kwaye awukwazi ukudibanisa, ngoko ngokubanzi abenzi. .amafu. Okwangoku, ubukho beesathelayithi kunye neeradar zivumela i-Eye yeNkanyamba ukuba ilandelwe nangaliphi na ixesha. Kwaye iinqwelomoya zokuhlola zihlala zingena kuzo ukuze zifumane idatha (uxinzelelo lwazo lunye lwezalathi eziphambili zokwanda kokuqina). Nangona kunjalo, kukho imiqondiso enokukunceda ukuba ubone ukuba usembindini wenkanyamba (ukuba unazo izixhobo zokuyilinganisa):

  • Ukuhla okunamandla kuxinzelelo lwe-atmospheric kwindawo
  • Iqondo lobushushu lidla ngokuba yi-10 ºC ngaphezu kobushushu be-ambient
  • Ngaphandle kwezixhobo zokulinganisa ezi ziguquguqukayo, kwanele ukucinga ukuba izinto aziphucuki ngokukhawuleza emva kokudlula kwenkanyamba, kwaye unokuba kanye phambi kwakho ukuba kukho ukuzola ngokukhawuleza.

Nangona kunjalo, isizathu sokuba eyona ndawo inamandla kakhulu yendudumo idla ngokuvela ngasemva kwamehlo ifumaneka kwifiziksi. Ukukunika umbono, jonga apho amanzi ajika khona xa esihla kumjelo kwishawari yakho okanye kwisinki. Ngaphantsi kweemeko ezifanelekileyo zomzimba (ezingathintelwa ngamanye amandla akhokelayo okanye iimeko zokusingqongileyo), iya kuhlala ijikeleza ngokuhambelana ne-clockwise ukuba uhlala kumantla e-hemisphere, kwaye okuchaseneyo kuya kwenzeka ukuba uhlala kwi-hemisphere esemazantsi.

Isizathu emva koku, esafunyanwa kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX, yaziwa njengempembelelo yeCoriolis kwaye sisiphumo soMhlaba ojikelezayo kwi-axis yawo. La mandla ajikelezisa iinkanyamba kuMntla weIkhweyitha ngokunxamnye newotshi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neso leqhwithi kunye neempawu zalo.


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