Iindidi zentelekelelo yeemephu

Iintlobo zengqikelelo yekhatografi ekhoyo

Uqikelelo lwekhatografi sisixhobo esisisiseko kwihlabathi lokuzoba, inzululwazi enoxanduva lokumela umphezulu woMhlaba kwiimephu. Ekubeni uMhlaba uyingqukuva ye-three-dimensional, kodwa iimephu zimbini-dimensional planes, kuyimfuneko ukuguqula ulwazi ukusuka kwi-sphere ukuya kwindawo ethe tyaba. Kukho ezahlukeneyo iintlobo zentelekelelo yeemephu eyahlukileyo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela malunga neentlobo zokubonisa i-cartographic ekhoyo, iimpawu zabo kunye nokubaluleka kwazo.

Yintoni uqikelelo lwemephu

iimephu zehlabathi

Kwijografi, intelekelelo yemephu yindlela yokubonisa ngokubonakalayo inxenye yoqweqwe loMhlaba ngokuthelekisa indalo egobileyo yoMhlaba nomphezulu othe tyaba wemephu. Ngokusisiseko iqulathe "ukuguqula" unikezelo lwe-3D kunikezelo lwe-2D, lugqwetha imilinganiselo yoqobo kancinane kangangoko.

Oku kufana nenkqubo apho umzobi wemephu wenza imephu kwaye kufuneka akhokelwe yinkqubo yolungelelwaniso eyenziwe ngama-meridians kunye nobubanzi bomhlaba ukuseka ukumelwa kwendawo eyinyani kwimilinganiselo yokugoba koMhlaba.

Nangona kunjalo, oku akunakwenziwa ngaphandle komda othile wempazamo, ngoko uqikelelo luyaphononongwa ukuze kuncitshiswe ukugqwetheka kwaye, okokuqala, kugcinwe imiba emithathu esisiseko yeemephu: umgama, umphezulu kunye nokumila.

Kusenokubakho uqikelelo lwe-cartographic olwahlukileyo, oko kukuthi, iindlela ezahlukeneyo kunye neenkqubo zokumela ubungakanani boMhlaba (okanye inxalenye yobuso bawo) kwimilinganiselo emibini, kuba oku kuye kwaba yinkxalabo kwijografi ukususela kumaxesha amandulo. Ngokwale ngqiqo, akukho “ukuthembeka ngakumbi” kunomnye, kodwa babeka iingxaki ezahlukeneyo zejometri kwaye bagxininisa imiba eyahlukeneyo yokumelwa.

Iindidi zentelekelelo yeemephu

uqikelelo lukagoode

Ukwahlula i-cartographic projection, i-criterion yejometri ephefumlelweyo isetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo, oko kukuthi, ukuba iprojekti i-cylindrical, i-conical, i-azimuthal okanye idibanisa imiba yeendidi ezintathu. Ezi ntlobo zoqikelelo lwekhatografi ezikhoyo:

  • uqikelelo lwecylindrical. Njengoko igama libonisa, luqikelelo olusebenzisa i-cylinder yentelekelelo njengendawo yemephu. I-cylinder ihleli i-tangent okanye i-tangent kumphezulu we-spherical weplanethi, ene-consistency elungileyo (ihlonipha imilo), kodwa njengoko siqhubeka sisuka kwi-ikhweyitha, kukho ukugqwesa okukhulu kunye nokuchazwa ngakumbi ngokubhekiselele kumgama kunye nommandla wendawo. Nangona kunjalo, ngokugcina i-perpendicularity phakathi kwe-meridians kunye ne-parallels, luhlobo olulula noluluncedo lwentelekelelo esetyenziswa ngokubanzi kuhambo.
  • uqikelelo oluyiconical. Ngokufana noqikelelo lwecylindrical, ezi zifunyanwa ngokubeka ingqukuva yomhlaba ngaphakathi kwegophe langaphakathi le-imaginary tangent okanye i-cone ye-secant, apho imigca yesibanzi kunye nemeridians iqikelelwa. Inzuzo yolu hlobo lwentelekelelo kukuba ijika i-meridians ibe yimigca ethe tye ukusuka kwiipali kunye nokuhambelana kwizangqa ezigxininisiweyo ngaphakathi kwekhoni. Imephu enesiphumo ikufanelekele ukumela izibanzi ezisembindini, njengoko iya igqwetheka njengoko umntu esiya ezipalini.
  • uqikelelo lwe-azimuthal. Ikwabizwa ngokuba ziingqikelelo ze-zenithal, zifunyanwa ngokubeka ingqukuva yomhlaba kwingqikelelo yendiza ejikelezayo ukuya kwisphere ngokwayo, apho i-meridians kunye ne-parallels ziqikelelwa. Umbono ofunyenweyo uhambelana nombono wehlabathi obonwa kumbindi woMhlaba okanye kwiplanethi ekude. Olu qikelelo luhle kakhulu ekugcineni ubudlelwane phakathi kwezibonda kunye ne-hemisphere, ngoko ke zichanekile kwiindawo eziphezulu; kodwa umgama omkhulu phakathi kwendiza kunye nenqanaba le-tangent ye-sphere, ngakumbi zigqwethiwe, ngoko azifanelekanga.
  • Uqikelelo olulungisiweyo. Ekwabizwa ngokuba ziingqikelelo ezidibeneyo okanye ezixubeneyo, zezo ngqikelelo ezibandakanya imiba eyahlukeneyo yoqikelelo oludweliswe ngasentla kunye nokuzama ukumela ngokuthembekileyo umphezulu woMhlaba ngokwaphula ukuqhubeka kwemephu kunye nolwakhiwo lwemathematika lwezikwere eziqulathe umphezulu woMhlaba ofanayo. Yinkqubo ephikisayo, kodwa ivumela ukuzama ukuguqulwa ngokuzithandela kwe-meridian kunye ne-terrestrial parallel ukufumana iziphumo ezitsha kunye nezingenakwenzeka kunye nezinye iintlobo zentelekelelo.

Indlela yokwenza

iintlobo zentelekelelo yeemephu

Akwenzeki ngokobuchwephesha ukumela uMhlaba kwindawo ethe tyaba ngaphandle kokuphazamisa iimpawu zejometri. Ubunzima bokumela ubume obufana noMhlaba kumphezulu osicaba bunokulungiswa ukusa kumlinganiselo othile ngesixhobo esibizwa ngokuba yi-projection yemephu, evumela ukuguqulwa kobume obungqukuva kwinqwelomoya, kuquka imigca yesibanzi kunye nobude, ukuze zonke izinto phakathi kobudlelwane obuhambelanayo. Kule nto, iindlela ezingqongqo zemathematika ziyimfuneko ngokupheleleyo.

Ngamafutshane, uqikelelo lwemephu sisixhobo esixabiseke kakhulu sokwenza iimephu ukuze imilinganiselo yazo, iipropathi, kunye nendawo ezikuyo iindawo ezingaphakathi kwigophe lomhlaba zifane nenyani.

Zonke iingqikelelo zemephu zibonisa iimpawu ezinxulumene nohlobo lwenguqu okanye inkqubo yejometri esetyenziselwa ukufezekisa inguqu. Ke, uqikelelo lwejografi lunokuba nepropathi enye okanye ezimbini kwezi zintathu zilandelayo, kodwa akukho meko inokwaneliswa zontathu ngaxeshanye:

  • ukulingana: Intelekelelo ithembekile kwimigama yokuqala, oko kukuthi, ayikwandisi okanye ayinciphisi, kodwa kunoko igcina imilinganiselo yayo kwisikali esihambelanayo.
  • Ukulingana: Intelekelelo ithembekile kwindawo yokuqala, oko kukuthi, ayiphazamisi ubungakanani kunye nobukhulu bomphezulu.
  • Ngokungqinelana: Intelekelelo ithembekile kwimilo kunye nee-angles ze-original, oko kukuthi, ayiphambukisi iprofayili okanye ukubonakala komphezulu omele.

Kuqikelelo ngalunye, iinzame ziyenziwa ukuhlonipha ezi propati zintathu zisisiseko kangangoko kunokwenzeka, nangona ezinye zidla ngokuncama ngaphezu kwezinye ngokuxhomekeke kusetyenziso oluthile lwemephu eqikelelweyo. Umzekelo, ukuba yimephu yehlabathi okanye ingqukuva yesikolo esithe tyaba, ngokubanzi imilo yamazwekazi ihlonitshwa ngaphezu komgama ophakathi kwamazwekazi kunye nomphezulu welizwekazi ngalinye.

Olunye uqikelelo lwemephu

Ezi zezinye iintlobo zoqikelelo ezingaziwayo kakhulu:

  • pseudoconical: Imigca enxuseneyo imelwe zii-arcs ezi-concentric kunye ne-meridians ngemigca egobileyo. I-meridian ephakathi ngumgca othe tye.
  • ipseudocylindrical: Ukuhambelana kunye ne-meridians ephakathi kuboniswa njengemigca ethe tye. Iimeridians zizigophe ezihambelanayo.
  • Polyconic: Ungqamaniso lwesibanzi lumelwe zii-arcs ezingagxiliyo kunye namaziko azo kwimeridian ephakathi.

Akukho ngqikelelo yemephu igqibelele, kodwa inciphisa ukugqwetheka kwendawo, icala, indawo, umgama kunye nokumila. Ukusetyenziswa kwemephu enikiweyo kunye nentelekelelo yemephu enikiweyo ixhomekeke kwiimfuno zomntu ngamnye, njengoko nganye inenzuzo kunye nokungalunganga. Ngokomzekelo, ukugxila kwiindawo eziphantsi, kungcono ukusebenzisa imephu ye-cylindrical projection, i-conical projection for mid-latitudes, kunye ne-azimuthal ye-azimuthal yemimandla ye-polar.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neentlobo zokubonisa i-cartographic ekhoyo kunye neempawu zabo.


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