Iindidi zeenkanyamba

iinkanyamba

Izaqhwithi sesinye sezona ziganeko zemeteorological zitshabalalisayo ezikhoyo. Ixesha lonyaka apho zivame ukubonakala ngoSeptemba. Kukho ezahlukeneyo iintlobo zeenkanyamba kuxhomekeke kubukhulu, imvelaphi kunye nefom.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeenkanyamba ezikhoyo, iimpawu zazo, izizathu kunye nemiphumo.

Yintoni inkanyamba

iintlobo zeenkanyamba

Into yokuqala kuzo zonke kukwazi ukuba yintoni na inkanyamba kunye nendlela eyakhiwe ngayo. Inkanyamba yinto yemeteorological ezibonakalisa njengesaqhwithi esinamandla setropikhi esibonakaliswa yimimoya ebhudla ngamandla kunye noxinzelelo oluphantsi kakhulu lweatmospheri embindini wayo. Ezi nkqubo zemozulu, ezaziwa ngokuba zizitshingitshane okanye iinkanyamba kwimimandla eyahlukeneyo yehlabathi,ziyakwazi ukubangela iintlobo ngeentlobo zeempembelelo ezibalulekileyo, kodwa umongo wayo uxhomekeke kumandla omoya kunye nokujikeleza okujikelezayo okuzingqongileyo.

Zenziwe njani

iintlobo zeenkanyamba ezikhoyo

Izaqhwithi zenza uthotho lweemeko ezithile kulwandle kunye nomoya. Ukuze kubekho inkanyamba, amanzi olwandle anobushushu obungama-26 degrees celsius okanye ngaphezulu ayafuneka. Amanzi afudumeleyo anika amandla afunekayo ukuze aphembelele inkanyamba, njengoko ubushushu obuphuma emanzini buba ngumphunga kwaye bukhutshelwe emoyeni.

Iatmosfera kufuneka iqulathe isixa esibalulekileyo sokufuma ukuze kubekho ukujiya komphunga wamanzi. Xa umoya ofumileyo unyuka, uyaphola uze ujiye ube ngamathontsi amanzi amancinci, ukhuphe ubushushu obufihlakeleyo obuqhuba inkqubo. Umoya ozolileyo ngokwentelekiso uyafuneka kumanqanaba aphakathi omoya ukuvumela inkqubo ukuba iphuhle. Imimoya ebhudla ngamandla okanye utshintsho olukhawulezileyo kwisantya somoya lunokuthintela ukuvela kwenkanyamba.

Rhoqo, indawo yoxinzelelo lomoya ophantsi okanye amaza etropikhi isebenza njengendawo yokuqala yokwenziwa kwenkanyamba. Oku kuphazamiseka kokuqala kusebenza njengendawo ekugxilwe kuyo apho inkqubo inokuphuhliswa khona.

Ukujikeleza koMhlaba, okwaziwa njengempembelelo ye-Coriolis, kubalulekile ekwenziweni kwenkanyamba. Esi siphumo sibangela ukuba umoya oshukumayo ujike uye ngasekunene kwi-hemisphere esemantla nasekhohlo kwi-hemisphere esemazantsi. eyenza ujikelezo oluyimfuneko kwinkanyamba.

Xa umoya ofudumeleyo nofumileyo uphuma phezu kolwandle, ubangela ummandla woxinzelelo oluphantsi kumphezulu. Umoya ojikelezileyo utsalwa kule ndawo yoxinzelelo oluphantsi kwaye uqala ukujikeleza ngokuchasene ne-clockwise kwi-hemisphere esenyakatho okanye i-clockwise kwi-hemisphere esemazantsi.

Iindidi zeenkanyamba

ukubunjwa kwenkanyamba

Iindidi zezaqhwithi ezikhoyo zihlelwa ngokweendidi ezintlanu ngokomlinganiselo wokuqina owaziwa ngokuba yiSaffir-Simpson Wind Scale. Icandelo ngalinye limele inqanaba elahlukileyo lokuqina kwaye lineempawu ezithile kunye neziphumo. Ezi ntlobo zezaqhwithi ezikhoyo kunye neempawu zazo:

  • Icandelo loku-1 (Umoya we-119-153 km/h: Kolu didi, imimoya inamandla aphakathi. Udidi 1 lwenkanyamba lujongwa xa imimoya ezinzileyo ifikelela kwisantya se-119 ukuya kwi-153 km/h. Umonakalo udla ngokuba mncinci kolu didi. Uphahla, imithi, kunye neentambo zombane zisenokuthi zenzeke.Izandyondyo zengingqi kunye nokugaleleka kwesiphango zinokwenzeka, kodwa ngokuqhelekileyo aziyonakalisi njengeendidi eziphezulu.
  • Icandelo loku-2 (Umoya we-154-177 km/h: Imimoya yodidi 2 yomelele kakhulu kunoDidi 1. Imimoya ezinzileyo isuka kwi-154 ukuya kwi-177 km/h. Kolu didi, umonakalo usenokuba mncinci. Imimoya ebhudla ngamandla Inokuyiwisa imithi, yonakalise izakhiwo kunye kubangela ukucima kombane.Izandyondyo zonxweme kunye nokuza kwezaqhwithi kubi kakhulu, nto leyo enyusa umngcipheko wezikhukula.
  • Icandelo loku-3 (Umoya oyi-178-208 km/h): Iinkanyamba zodidi 3 zithathwa njengeenkanyamba “ezikhulu” ngenxa yobukhulu bazo. Baye banyamezela imimoya eyi-178 ukuya kuma-208 km/h. Kolu luhlu, umonakalo unokuba yingozi. Imimoya inokubangela umonakalo omkhulu kwizakhiwo kunye nezakhiwo, kunye nezikhukhula ezinzulu ngenxa yesiphango. Ukufuduka kuxhaphakile ukukhusela ubomi.
  • Icandelo loku-4 (Imimoya eyi-209-251 km/h): Iinkanyamba zodidi 4 ziyingozi kakhulu. Imimoya yayo ezinzileyo isuka kuma-209 ukuya kuma-251 km/h. Kolu didi, umonakalo uyintlekele. Imimoya inokutshabalalisa amakhaya nezakhiwo, yaye izikhukula zinokukhukulisa kwimimandla eselunxwemeni nakuluntu luphela. Ukukhupha izibilini kubalulekile, kwaye ukulungiswa ngononophelo kuyafuneka.
  • Icandelo loku-5 (Imimoya engaphezu kwama-252 km/h okanye ngaphezulu): Iinkanyamba zodidi 5 zezona zinamandla kwaye ziyingozi. Imimoya yayo ezinzileyo idlula i-252 km/h. Umonakalo kolu didi yintlekele. Izakhiwo zinokukhukuliseka, kwaye izikhukula zinokubulala. Izandyondyo zesaqhwithi zinokungena kumhlaba ngeemayile. Ukulungiselela kunye nokufuduka kubalulekile ekusindiseni ubomi.

Ixesha lenkanyamba kunye nokutshintsha kwemozulu

Ixesha lenkanyamba liyahluka ngokuxhomekeke apho yenzeka khona; Ixesha lenkanyamba yaseNorth Atlantic lenzeka rhoqo ngo-Agasti, ngoSeptemba no-Oktobha, kanye njengakwiPasifiki, xa umahluko wobushushu umkhulu namanzi eshushu. Nangona kunjalo, kwi-hemisphere esezantsi ixesha liqala ngo-Oktobha kwaye liphele ngoMeyi.

Iziqhwithi zifumana igama lomntu ukuchongwa (kunokuba namagama amaninzi ngexesha elifanayo, ukuhanjiswa komonakalo nge-inshurensi, isilumkiso kubemi ...), kukho imigaqo emiselweyo yokusabalalisa kwabo, umzekelo batshintshana. Amagama amadoda namabhinqa: Ngokomzekelo, ekubeni iNkanyamba u-Irma noJosé zazisebenza ngaxeshanye, eminye imithetho iquka, ngokomzekelo, ukuba isaqhwithi sokuqala kwiminyaka engaqhelekanga-manani sifumana igama lobufazi kunye nesaqhwithi sokuqala kwiminyaka enokubalwa nokufumana igama lendoda.

Nangona eyona nto iphawulekayo malunga nenkanyamba yimimoya yaso enamandla, ingozi yaso ixhomekeke ngaphezu kwayo yonke into kubuninzi bemvula esiza nayo. Ezi mvula zibangela izikhukula ezinkulu kunye nokunyuka kwamaqondo olwandle, kubangela izikhukhula. Idityaniswe namaza, inokuvelisa izaqhwithi ezibulalayo eziselunxwemeni, ngelixa imimoya imele kuphela i-5% yokufa okupheleleyo.

Iqondo lobushushu lolwandle kunye ne-atmosphere yenye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo ekumiseleni uhlobo kunye nohlobo lwezitshingitshane ezenzekayo, ngoko ke kwezinye iimeko utshintsho lwemozulu olubangelwa ngumntu lubangela ukwanda kwamaqondo obushushu olwandle. Ukuqwalaselwa kwamva nje kubaluleke kakhulu kangangokuba bacebisa ukuba amandla atshabalalisayo eenkanyamba ayanda (ixesha elide kunye nexesha elininzi).

Abanye ababhali baye baqaphela ukuba, nangona inani leenkanyamba ze-1 ukuya kwi-3 libonakala linciphile kule minyaka ilishumi idlulileyo, Inani leenkanyamba zodidi oluphezulu lonyukile.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neentlobo zeenkanyamba kunye neempawu zazo.


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