Iindidi zamatye, ukwakheka kunye neempawu

Iindidi zerock

Namhlanje siza kuthetha ngesihloko sejiology. Imalunga ne iintlobo zamatye ezikhoyo. Oko umhlaba wethu wasekwayo, izigidi zamatye kunye nezimbiwa zenziwe. Kuxhomekeke kwimvelaphi yabo kunye nohlobo lwabo loqeqesho, kukho iintlobo ezininzi. Onke amatye ehlabathini anokuhlelwa ngokwamaqela amakhulu amathathu: amatye angenanto, amatye entlenga kunye namatye e-metamorphic.

Ukuba ufuna ukwazi zonke iintlobo zamatye akhoyo, iimeko zokwakheka kunye neempawu zawo, le yiposti yakho 🙂

Amatye e-sedimentary

Amatye e-sedimentary kunye nokwenziwa kwawo

Siza kuqala ngokuchaza amatye eentlenga. Ukubunjwa kwayo kubangelwa ukuthuthwa kunye nokufakwa kwezinto ngenxa isenzo somoya, amanzi kunye nomkhenkce. Baye bakwazi ukufakwa kwimichiza kulwelo olunamanzi. Ixesha elingaphezulu, ezi zinto zidibeneyo zenza ilitye. Ke ngoko, amatye e-sedimentary enziwe ngezinto ezininzi.

Kwelinye icala, amatye eentlenge ahlulelane ngobundlobongela nangokwexeshana

Amatye e-sedimentary detrital

Amatye e-sedimentary detrital

Ezi zezo zenziwe ngokudibana kwamatye athile emva kokuba zithuthwe ngaphambili. Kuxhomekeka kubungakanani bamaqhekeza amatye, achongwa ngandlela thile. Ukuba uthe iziqwenga zinkulu kune-2 mm  kwaye zijikeleziwe zibizwa ngokuba zii-conglomerate. Kwelinye icala, ukuba zii-angular zibizwa ngokuba zizikhewu.

Ukuba iziqwengana ezenza eli litye zikhululekile, zibizwa ngokuba zii gravel. Mhlawumbi uvile ngegrabile. Nini zincinci kune-2mm kwaye zinkulu kune-0,6mmOko kukuthi, ngeliso lenyama nokuba nge-microscope ebonakalayo babizwa ngokuba ngamatye esanti. Xa iziqwenga ezenza iliwa zincinci kangangokuba sifuna i-electron microscope, zibizwa ngokuba yisilika nodongwe.

Okwangoku, igrabile isetyenziselwa ukuhlanganiswa kunye nokwenziwa kwekhonkrithi. AmaConglomates kunye namatye esanti asetyenziselwa ukuhlala kwawo kulwakhiwo. Udongwe lusetyenziswa kubomi bethu bemihla ngemihla kunye nonyango nokusetyenziswa kwezithambiso. Zikwasetyenziswa nasekwakhiweni kwezitena neeseramikhi. Iipropathi zabo zokungangeni manzi zibenza bagqibelele ekufunxeni iimveliso ezingcolisayo kunye nokucoca kumzi mveliso. Zisetyenziswa njengempahla ekrwada yokwakha udaka kunye nodonga lwe-adobe kunye nokwenza iziqwenga zomdongwe, udongwe kunye ne-porcelain.

Amatye e-sedimentary angabonakaliyo

Idolomite yelitye elingadaluliyo

Ezi ntlobo zamatye zenziwa imvula yeemichiza ezithile kwizisombululo zolwelo. Ezinye izinto ezinemvelaphi ye-organic zinokuqokelelana ukuze zenze la matye. Elinye lawona matye aqhelekileyo naziwa ngolu hlobo ngamatye ekalika. Yenziwe ngemvula ye-calcium carbonate okanye ingqokelela yamaqhekeza wamathambo eekorale, ii-ostracods kunye neegastropods.

Kuqhelekile ukubona iziqwenga zeefosili kolu hlobo lwamatye. Umzekelo welitye lekalika libala. Iliwa elinamatye anezityalo ezininzi kwaye ahlala emilanjeni xa icalcium carbonate inyibilika kutyani.

Omnye umzekelo oqhelekileyo ziidolomites. Zahlukile kwezidlulileyo kuba zinobume bemichiza obunomxholo wemagniziyam ephezulu. Xa ingqokelela yoonokrwece bezinto ezenziwe ngesilika, kuyilwa amatye eqhwitha.

Kukho uhlobo lwelitye ngaphakathi kwendawo engabonakaliyo iminxeba evaporitic. Ezi zinto zenziwa ngomphunga wamanzi kwimeko yolwandle nakwimigxobhozo okanye kumadike. Elona litye libaluleke kakhulu kweli qela yi-gypsum. Ziyakhiwa ngemvula ye-calcium sulfate.

Ilitye lekalika lisetyenziswa ekwenziweni kwesamente kunye nekalika ekwakheni. Zizinto ezisetyenziselwa ulungelelwaniso kunye nokugquma komgangatho wezakhiwo. Amalahle kunye neoyile luhlobo lwelitye elingelolomngcipheko Iifowuni ze-organogenic. Igama layo libangelwa kukuba livela ekuqokeleleni kwezinto eziphilayo kunye neentsalela zayo. Ngelixa amalahle evela kubutyobo bezityalo, ioyile evela kulwandle lweplankton. Banomdla omkhulu kuqoqosho ngenxa yexabiso labo eliphezulu lokuvelisa amandla ngokutsha.

Amatye anqabileyo

Amatye anqabileyo

Olu luhlobo lwesibini lwerwala. Ziveliswa kukupholisa ubunzima bolwelo lobume besilicate ivela ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. Ubunzima obutyhidiweyo bubushushu obuphezulu kakhulu kwaye buqina xa bufikelela kumphezulu womhlaba. Kuxhomekeka kwindawo apholisa kuyo, ziya kunika iintlobo ezimbini zamatye.

Amatye ePlutonic

Ilitye lenyengane egneous

Ezi zinto zivela xa ubunzima bolwelo buthe phantsi komhlaba. Oko kukuthi, xa uphantsi koxinzelelo oluphantsi, iityiwa ngaphakathi zikhula ngokusondeleyo kunye. Oku kubangela ukuba amatye ashinyeneyo, angabinayo porous ukuba enze. Ukupholisa ubunzima bolwelo kucotha kakhulu, ngenxa yoko iikristale zinokuba nkulu kakhulu.

Elinye lamatye adumileyo alolu hlobo inyengane. Ziqulathe umxube wezimbiwa ze-quartz, i-feldspars kunye ne-mica.

Amatye eentaba-mlilo

Isasalt

Olu hlobo lwenziwa xa ubunzima bolwelo bukhuphukela ngaphandle kumhlaba womhlaba buze buphole apho. La ngamatye enza xa udaka lwentaba-mlilo lupholile lwaya kumaqondo obushushu asezantsi noxinzelelo. Amakristali kula matye mancinci kwaye ane-amorphous uncrystallized glass-like matter.

Enye yezona ziqhelekileyo kwaye kulula ukuzibona ziziseko kunye nepumice.

Amatye eMetamorphic

Imarmore yelitye leMetamorphic

La matye aveliswa ngamatye ebesele ekho ngoku eqhubeka ubushushu kunye noxinzelelo luyanda ngokweenkqubo zejoloji. Ukulungiswa kwakhona kwezi ntlobo zamatye kubenza batshintshe ukwakheka kunye neeminerali. Le nkqubo ye-metamorphic yenzeka kwimeko eqinileyo. Iliwa akufuneki linyibilike.

Uninzi lwamatye e-metamorphic luphawulwa ngokutyunyuzwa ngokubanzi kwezimbiwa ezenza iliwa licwecwe laminishwe. Esi siphumo sibizwa ngokuba kukudityaniswa kwamahlamvu.

Amatye aqhelekileyo awaziwayo zizileyiti, imarble, iquartzite, i-gneiss kunye nee-schists.

Sele uzazi ngcono iintlobo zamatye akhoyo kunye neenkqubo zokwenziwa kwawo. Ngoku lithuba lakho lokuya ebaleni kwaye uqaphele ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zamatye ozibonayo kwaye unciphise ukwenziwa kunye nenkqubo yokwakheka.


Izimvo, shiya eyakho

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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  1.   UJose Joaquin Adarmes Hernandez sitsho

    Olu phando lunomdla kakhulu, ndibekwe eSan Sebastian de los Reyes kaRhulumente wase-Aragua Venezuela kwaye kukho iinduli ezibalulekileyo zelitye lekalika kunye nezinye izimbiwa kwinkqubo yemiqolomba kunye nemiwonyo yobuhle obukhulu kuba ndingathanda ukuphanda ngakumbi malunga neempawu kunye neentlobo ze izimbiwa ezikhoyo kwezi miqolomba mihle.