Ifotometer: iintlobo kunye nokusebenza

Ifotomitha yokukhanya

Un ifotometer Sisixhobo esisisiseko kwihlabathi lokufota kunye nenzululwazi ngeenkwenkwezi esinceda silinganise ubunzulu bokukhanya. Kufana nobuchopho obuncinane be-elektroniki obuhlala kwiikhamera zethu okanye esisiphatha ngokwahlukeneyo njengesixhobo esiphathwayo. Eli gama lenziwe ngezinto zokuhlanganisa ifoto- (ukukhanya) kunye nemitha (isixhobo esisetyenziselwa ukulinganisa). Ukusetyenziswa kweefotometer kubaluleke kakhulu kweli lizwe.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga imitha yokukhanya, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka.

Yintoni iphotometer

ifotometer kwi-astronomy

Ifotometer sisixhobo esisetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ubunzulu bokukhanya. Umsebenzi wayo ophambili kukumisela ubungakanani bokukhanya obukhoyo kwindawo okanye kwinqanaba elifanelekileyo lokuvezwa ukuthatha ifoto evezwe ngokufanelekileyo.

I-photometer inesixhobo esineseli ye-photosensitive, ngokubanzi i-photodiode, ekwazi ukubona ukukhanya kwesiganeko. Le seli iguqula ukukhanya kube ngumqondiso wombane, othi ke uhlaziywe uze uboniswe kwisikali somlinganiselo wephotometer.

Ukusetyenziswa kwemitha yokukhanya kubalulekile kubafoto beefoto kunye nee-cinematographers, ekubeni ibavumela ukuba bafumane iziphumo ezichanekileyo nezihambelanayo malunga nokuvezwa. Ngokulinganisa ubunzulu bokukhanya kwindawo, imitha yokukhanya ibanceda bagqibe indibaniselwano eyiyo yokuvula indawo, isantya sokuvala isivalo, kunye ne-ISO ukuphumeza ukutyhileka okuchanekileyo.

Kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeefotometers, ezifana nezandla, ezo zifakwe kwiikhamera okanye ezizimeleyo. Iimitha zokukhanya eziphathwayo zizixhobo eziphathwayo ezisetyenziswa ngokuzibamba kufutshane nendawo ekuza kufotwa kuyo. Kwelinye icala, ezinye iimodeli zekhamera ziquka iimitha zokukhanya ezakhelwe ngaphakathi ezilinganisa ukukhanya ngelensi kwaye unikeze ngokufunda ngokuthe ngqo kwimboniselo okanye kwiscreen sekhamera.

Usetyenziso kwi-astronomy

iintlobo zeemitha zokuvezwa

Iifotomitha nazo zinezicelo ezibalulekileyo kwinkalo yenzululwazi ngeenkwenkwezi. Kwi-astronomy, ukufundwa kwezinto zasezulwini kunye neziganeko zeenkwenkwezi ifuna imilinganiselo echanekileyo yokukhanya okuvela emajukujukwini.

IAstronomical photometers zizixhobo eziyilwe ngokukhethekileyo ukulinganisa umlinganiselo wokukhanya okukhutshwa ziinkwenkwezi, iminyele, iinebula nezinye izinto ezisesibhakabhakeni. Ezi mitha zokukhanya zikholisa ukuba novakalelo oluphezulu lokuchola nezona mpawu zokukhanya zibuthathaka. Ezi zixhobo zisetyenziswa kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zophando. Ngokomzekelo, zisetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ukukhanya kweenkwenkwezi kunye neminyele, nto leyo ivumela ukumisela ukukhanya kwayo okungaphakathi, umgama wayo kunye nezinye iiparameters ezibalulekileyo ukuqonda ubume kunye nokuvela kwendalo iphela.

Zibalulekile kuphononongo lweziganeko ezidlulayo ezifana ne-supernovae, i-gamma-ray bursts, kunye ne-novae. Ngokulinganisa utshintsho lokuqaqamba kwezi ziganeko, ezi zixhobo zivumela izazi ngeenkwenkwezi ukuba zibone zize ziphonononge ezi ziganeko, nto leyo enikela inkcazelo ebalulekileyo ngeenkqubo zeenkwenkwezi ezibandakanyekayo.

Zikwasetyenziselwa ukukhangela kunye nokubonakaliswa kwee-exoplanets. Ngokulinganisa iiyantlukwano ezifihlakeleyo ekukhanyeni kwenkwenkwezi okubangelwa yi-exoplanet ehamba phambi kwayo, iiphotometers zinokunceda ekuchongeni nasekufundeni ezi planethi zikude.

Iintlobo zeefotometers

ukukhanya okubonakalisiweyo

Kukho iintlobo ezi-3 zeefotometers: ezo zilinganisa zibonise ukukhanya, ezo zilinganisa ukukhanya kwesiganeko, kunye nezo zinokumeta zombini iindidi zokukhanya.

IFotometer yoKhanya ebonakalisiweyo

Ifotomitha yokukhanya ebonakalisiweyo ilinganisa ukukhanya okuvela emntwini okanye kwinto esiyifotayo. Oku kuthetha ukuba ixabiso lokuvezwa elinikwe imitha yokukhanya ebonakalisiweyo liya kuxhomekeka kwi-hue yento, ekubeni into okanye umntu onombala okhanyayo ubonisa ukukhanya okungaphezulu kunento okanye umntu onombala omnyama. Oko kukuthi, abantu abanolusu olukhanyayo baya kubonelela ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo zokuvezwa kubantu abanolusu olumnyama.

Isiganeko sokukhanya kwefotometer

Olu hlobo lulinganisa ubunzulu be ukukhanya okwenyani okuvela kwindawo ewela phezu kombandela nokuba yintoni na okanye umntu esimfotayo kwaye isinika ixabiso elihambelanayo lokuvezwa. Oko kukuthi, akukhathaliseki ukuba into imhlophe, imnyama okanye imdaka, ixabiso lokuvezwa elisinika lona liyafana.

Ukusebenza

Sele siphawule ukuba ifotometer ilinganisa ukukhanya (ibonakaliswe okanye isehlo) kwaye isinika amaxabiso okuvezwa achanekileyo ekukhanyeni kwendawo ephambi kwethu.

Ngemitha yokukhanya ebonakalisiweyo edibeneyo kwikhamera yethu, kubalulekile ukukhetha ngokuchanekileyo uhlobo lokulinganisa olufunekayo kwindawo nganye kwaye uqonde indlela yokutolika iziphumo, ekubeni ukuvezwa okuchanekileyo okanye okungalunganga kokudubula kuya kuxhomekeka kuyo. Ezi ntlobo zomlinganiselo ezikhoyo:

  • Imatrix: Kuthatha iireferensi zokuvezwa ukusuka kumanqaku ahlukeneyo asasazwe kwisakhelo kwaye iphakamisa umyinge wokuvezwa ngokwezibane ezahlukeneyo. Kufanelekile kwiimeko ezininzi apho ukungafani phakathi kokukhanya nesithunzi kungabonakali.
  • Ukufika ngexesha: ilinganisa ngqo inqaku esiyibonisayo kwindawo, sigxile kuyo kwaye singahoyi ezinye izibane. Isebenza kakuhle xa kukho umahluko omkhulu ekukhanyeni phakathi kweziko lethu lomdla kunye nendawo yonke.
  • Ngokungaphelelanga: iyafana nebala, kodwa igubungela ngaphezulu komfanekiso ukuvavanya ukuba sesichengeni.
  • iziko elilinganisiweyo: Yenza imilinganiselo kwindawo esembindini yomfanekiso ewubeka phambili, nangona ithathela ingqalelo ezinye izibane kwindawo.

Kwakhona, kufuneka sikhethe indlela yokudubula. Ukuba sikhetha imowudi yesandla, kuya kufuneka sihlengahlengise amaxabiso kanxantathu wokuvezwa ngokusekwe kwinto esixelela yona imitha yokuvezwa yekhamera.

Ukuba sikhetha imo ephambili, ifotometer iya kusinika ixabiso lolunye uguquko lonxantathu wokuvezwa. Kwelinye icala, ukuba sikhetha imowudi ezenzekelayo, ikhamera iya kwenza nasiphi na isantya sesivalo esiyimfuneko, i-aperture, kunye nohlengahlengiso lwe-ISO njengoko ibona kufanelekile.

Emva kokuba imodi yokulinganisa kunye nemodi yokudubula ikhethiwe, kufuneka sitolike imilinganiselo enikezelwa yi-photometer kwaye senza oko nge-histogram. Ihistogram isinceda ukuba sazi ukuba sesichengeni sichanekile. Oko kukuthi, kungekuphela nje ukuba senza uhlengahlengiso oluchanekileyo ukuze umlinganiselo wefotometer ube "0", kodwa nokuba sinokutolika ngokuchanekileyo ukuvezwa okusinika kona, ekugqibeleni sifumana umfanekiso ngokwendawo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-photometer, iimpawu zayo kunye nokusetyenziswa.


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