Iintaba-mlilo eIceland

iintaba-mlilo eiceland

IIceland, ilizwe elinomkhenkce nomlilo, yiparadesi yemvelo. Amandla abandayo omkhenkce kunye nemozulu ye-arctic ingqubana nobushushu obugqabhukileyo bomhlaba. Umphumo uba lihlabathi lokwahluka okukhwankqisayo kubuhle obungenakuthelekiswa nanto benkangeleko yomhlaba. Ngaphandle kweentaba-mlilo zaseIceland, konke oku akunakwenzeka. Amandla e iintaba-mlilo eiceland Inokuchaza ubume balo mhlaba ngcono kunayo nayiphi na enye intaba-mlilo, idala amasimi agqunywe bulembu, amathafa amakhulu entlabathi emnyama, neencochoyi zeentaba ezimagqagala kunye nemingxuma emikhulu.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuze sikuxelele yonke into oyifunayo malunga neentaba-mlilo e-Iceland kunye neempawu zazo kunye nokubaluleka.

Iintaba-mlilo eIceland

intaba-mlilo ekhephini

Imikhosi yentaba-mlilo engaphantsi komphezulu nayo idale ezinye zezinto ezimangalisayo zelizwe, ezinje imithombo eshushu yendalo kunye neegiza ezidubulayo. Ukongezelela, imiphumo yokuqhuma kwangaphambili ingabonwa kwiingxondorha ezenziwe yimiqolomba ye-lava ene-sinuous kunye neentsika ze-basalt ezine-hexagonal.

Amawakawaka abantu athontelana ukuya e-Iceland ukuze babone iintaba-mlilo zayo kunye nemimangaliso abayenzileyo kwaye baqhubeke beyidala. Ngexesha logqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo, kufuneka sibe nomdla ngakumbi wokufumana ithuba bona enye yezona ziganeko zimangalisayo nezimangalisayo emhlabeni. Ukuqwalasela ukuba kubalulekile kwindalo yase-Iceland kunye nobume beshishini kunye nobume belizwe, siye saqulunqa esi sikhokelo esigunyazisiweyo kwiintaba-mlilo zase-Iceland, kwaye siyathemba ukuba inokuphendula yonke imibuzo onokuthi uzibuze yona. amandla ezi ntaba-mlilo.

Zingaphi?

iintaba-mlilo kwiimpawu zaseiceland

E-Iceland, kukho malunga ne-130 iintaba-mlilo ezisebenzayo kunye neentaba-mlilo ezileleyo. Kukho malunga nama-30 iinkqubo ezisebenzayo zentaba-mlilo phantsi kwesi siqithi, ngaphandle kweWest Fjords, kulo lonke ilizwe.

Isizathu sokuba ii-West Fjords zingasenawo umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo kukuba yeyona ndawo indala ye-Icelandic mainland, Yasekwa malunga nezigidi ezili-16 zeminyaka eyadlulayo kwaye sele yanyamalala kudederhu lwe-Atlantiki ephakathi. Ke ngoko, iWest Fjords yeyona ndawo kuphela yelizwe efuna umbane ukufudumeza amanzi endaweni yamanzi ashushu.

Umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo e-Iceland ngenxa yendawo yelizwe ngokuthe ngqo kumbindi we-Atlantiki ohlula iipleyiti zaseMntla Melika kunye ne-Eurasian tectonic. I-Iceland yenye yeendawo ezimbalwa ehlabathini apho le nduli inokubonwa ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle. Ezi tectonic plates ziyahlukana, nto leyo ethetha ukuba bohlukene omnye komnye. Ngokwenza njalo, i-magma ekwingubo yokwaleka iya kubonakala izalise isithuba esenziwayo kwaye ibonakale ngendlela yokudubula kwentaba-mlilo. Le nto yenzeka ecaleni kweentaba kwaye inokubonwa kwezinye iziqithi ezinentaba-mlilo, njengeAzores okanye iSanta Elena.

I-Mid-Atlantic Range ihamba kuyo yonke i-Iceland, enyanisweni uninzi lwesiqithi lukwilizwekazi laseMelika. Kukho iindawo ezininzi kweli lizwe apho kunokubonwa iinduli ezingaphelelanga, kuquka iReykjanes Peninsula kunye nommandla weMývatn, kodwa eyona ilungileyo yiThingvellir. Apho, unokuhamba kwiintlambo phakathi kwamacwecwe kwaye ubone ngokucacileyo iindonga zamazwekazi amabini kumacala omabini epaki yesizwe. Ngenxa yokuhlukana phakathi kwamacwecwe, le ntlambo ikhula malunga ne-2,5 cm ngonyaka.

Ukuphindaphinda kogqabhuko-dubulo

i-iceland nokudubula kwayo

Ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo eIceland aluqikeleleki, kodwa lwenzeka rhoqo. Akuzange kubekho ishumi leminyaka ukususela ekuqaleni kwee-XNUMX ngaphandle kokuqhuma, nangona amathuba okuba zenzeke ngokukhawuleza okanye ngokuphangaleleyo akwenzeki.

Ugqabhuko-dubulo lokugqibela olwaziwayo e-Iceland lwenzeka e-Holuhraun kwi-Highlands ngo-2014. I-Grímsfjall nayo yabhala ugqabhuko-dubulo olufutshane ngo-2011, ngelixa intaba-mlilo i-Eyjafjallajökull edume ngakumbi ibangele iingxaki ezinzulu ngo-2010. Isizathu sokuba igama elithi 'yaziwa' lisetyenziswe Kungenxa Ukurhanelwa ukuba kukho ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo ezininzi kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zelizwe ezingazange zaphule i-ice sheet, kubandakanya i-Katla ngo-2017 kunye ne-Hamelin ngo-2011.

Okwangoku, isisongelo kubomi babantu ngexesha logqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo eIceland sincinane kakhulu. Izikhululo zenyikima ezisasazeke kwilizwe lonke zinobuchule bokuxela kwangaphambili. Ukuba iintaba-mlilo ezinkulu ezifana neKatla okanye i-Askja zibonisa iimpawu zokuduma, ukufikelela kwindawo kuya kuthintelwa kwaye indawo iya kubekwa iliso elibukhali.

Ngenxa yesazela esilungileyo sabahlali bokuqala, eyona ntaba-mlilo iqhumayo ikude kwinucleus ehlala abantu. Ngokomzekelo, zimbalwa izixeko ezikunxweme olusemazantsi eIceland, kuba iintaba-mlilo ezinjengeKatla ne-Eyjafjallajökull zimi emantla. Ngenxa yokuba ezi ntaba ziphantsi komkhenkce, ukudubula kwawo kuya kubangela izikhukula zomkhenkce ezinkulu, ezinokutshayela yonke into esendleleni eya elwandle.

Yile nto eyenza ukuba uninzi loMzantsi ubukeke njengentlango yesanti emnyama. Enyanisweni, lithafa elenziwe ziidiphozithi zomkhenkce.

Ingozi yeentaba-mlilo eIceland

Ngenxa yokungaqiniseki kwazo, ezi zikhukula zomkhenkce, ezaziwa ngokuba ziijökulhlaups, okanye iSpanish ngesiIcelandic, ziseyenye yezona nkalo ziyingozi kakhulu kwintaba-mlilo yaseIceland. Njengoko kukhankanyiwe ngasentla, ugqabhuko-dubulo phantsi komkhenkce alusoloko lubonwa, ngoko ke ezi zikhukula zingenzeka ngaphandle kwesilumkiso.

Ewe, isayensi ihlala iqhubela phambili, kwaye ngoku, Okoko nje kukho nokuthandabuza okuncinci ukuba isichotho sinokubakho, ungaphuma kwaye ubeke iliso kwindawo. Ngoko ke, ngenxa yezizathu ezicacileyo, akuvumelekanga ukuqhuba kwiindlela ezingavumelekanga, kwanasehlotyeni okanye xa kubonakala ngathi akukho ngozi.

Nangona iintaba-mlilo ezininzi zikude kumaziko anabantu abaninzi, iingozi zihlala zisenzeka. Kwezi meko, nangona kunjalo, amanyathelo angxamisekileyo e-Iceland abonakalise ukusebenza ngokumangalisayo, njengoko kwabonwa ngogqabhuko-dubulo luka-1973 eHeimaey kwiZiqithi zaseVestman.

IHemai kuphela kwesiqithi esimiweyo kwiVestman Islands, ichweba elinentaba-mlilo. Xa kwaqhambuka intaba-mlilo, kwakuhlala abantu abangama-5.200 XNUMX apho. Ebutsheni bomhla wama-22 kuJanuwari, kwaqalisa ukugqabhuka uqhekeko kummandla ongaphandle kwesixeko waza watyhutyha umbindi wesixeko, watshabalalisa iindlela waza wagubungela amakhulu ezakhiwo zodaka.

Nangona kwenzeka ebusuku kwaye ekufeni kwasebusika, ukufuduswa kwesiqithi kwaqhutywa ngokukhawuleza nangempumelelo. Bakuba befikile abahlali ngokukhuselekileyo, amaqela ohlangulo asebenze nemikhosi yase-US emise kwelo lizwe ukunciphisa umonakalo.

Ngokusoloko bempompa amanzi olwandle kwi-lava flow, abazange bakwazi nje ukuphinda bawaqondise kude nezindlu ezininzi, kodwa bawathintele ukuba avale izibuko, aphelise uqoqosho lwesiqithi ngonaphakade.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neentaba-mlilo e-Iceland kunye neempawu zazo.


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