Yintoni eguqula iimpazamo kwaye zenziwa njani

Izwekazi eliguqula iimpazamo

Namhlanje siza kuthetha malunga nomba onxulumene neetetoniki zepleyiti: ukuguqula iimpazamo. Ubukho bayo buchaze ukwenziwa kweentlobo ezininzi zoncedo kwaye kubaluleke kakhulu kwijoloji. Kule posi uya kufunda ukuba yintoni impazamo eguqukayo kwaye yenziwa njani. Ukongeza, uya kufunda ukuba yeyiphi ifuthe kwi-geology yommandla.

Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi yonke into enxulumene nokusilela? Qhubeka ufunde 🙂

Iindidi zemiphetho phakathi kwamacwecwe

Iindidi zemiphetho phakathi kwamacwecwe

Njengoko ithiyori yeplate tectonics isitsho, uqweqwe lomhlaba lwahlulwe langumacwecwe etektoni. Isitya ngasinye sihamba ngesantya esingaguquguqukiyo. Emaphethelweni phakathi kwamacwecwe kukho ukwanda kwenyikima ngenxa yempixano. Kukho iintlobo ezininzi zemiphetho phakathi kwamacwecwe kuxhomekeke kubume bazo. Baxhomekeke ekubeni i-plaque iyatshatyalaliswa, iveliswe, okanye itshintshiwe ngokulula.

Ukwazi imvelaphi yempazamo eguqulweyo, kufuneka sazi iintlobo zemiphetho ezikhoyo phakathi kwamacwecwe. Kuqala, sifumana imiphetho eyahlukileyo. Kuzo, imiphetho yamacwecwe yahlulwe kukudalwa komgangatho wolwandle. Okwesibini kukuphela okuguqukayo apho iiplati ezimbini zelizwekazi zingqubana. Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lweplate, iya kuba nefuthe elahlukileyo. Okokugqibela, sifumana imiphetho engenziwanga, apho alikho ipleyiti elenziwayo okanye elonakalisiweyo.

Emaphethelweni okudambisa kukho uxinzelelo lwe-shear oluvela kwiipleyiti. Amacwecwe angaba yi-oceanic, i-continental, okanye zombini. Iziphoso eziguqukayo zafunyanwa kwezo ndawo apho iipleyiti zihamba njengamacandelo angalunganga kummango wolwandle. Ekuqaleni kwale nkolelo bekucingelwa ukuba iinduli zolwandle zazenziwe ngetyathanga elide neliqhubekayo. Oku kungenxa yokufuduswa okuthe tye ecaleni kwempazamo. Nangona kunjalo, xa ujongwa ngokusondeleyo, kubonakala ukuba ukufuduka kufane ngqo kunye nephutha. Oku kwenze ukuba isikhombisi esifunekayo sokuvelisa ukufuduswa komqolo wolwandle asenzekanga.

Ukufunyanwa kokuguqula iimpazamo

Iimpawu zempazamo yokuguqula

Ukuguqula iziphoso kwafunyanwa kungekudala ngaphambi kokubhengezwa kwethiyori yetectonics. Ifunyenwe ngu Isazinzulu uH. Huzo Wilson ngo-1965. WayekwiYunivesithi yaseToronto kwaye wacebisa ukuba ezi mpazamo zidityaniswe kwiibhanti ezisebenzayo zehlabathi. Ezi bhanti ziziphelo eziguqukayo neziphambukayo esizibonileyo ngaphambili. Onke la mabhanti asebenzayo ehlabathi amanyene kuthungelwano oluqhubekayo olwahlula umhlaba ube ziipleyiti eziqinileyo.

Ke, uWilson waba sisazinzulu sokuqala ukucebisa ukuba uMhlaba ubenziwe ngamacwecwe ngamanye. Wayekwangulowo wabonelela ngolwazi malunga nokufuduswa okungafaniyo okukhoyo kwiziphene.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Impazamo yokuguqula uLwandle

Uninzi lweempazamo zotshintsho zijoyina amacandelo amabini obubanzi bolwandle. Ezi mpazamo ziyinxalenye yemigca yekhefu kulwandlekazi olubizwa ngokuba yimimandla yokuqhekeka. Le mimandla ibandakanya iimpazamo zotshintsho kunye nolwandiso oluhlala lungasebenzi ngaphakathi kwipleyiti. Imimandla eqhekekayo Zifumaneka qho kwiikhilomitha ezili-100 ecaleni komphakamo wolwandlekazi.

Ezona mpazamo zisebenzayo zokuguqula ezo zifunyanwa kuphela phakathi kwamacandelo amabini afuduswe kummango. Kumgangatho wolwandle kukho icandelo lomqolo elihamba kwelinye icala ukusuka kumgangatho wolwandle oveliswayo. Ke phakathi kwala macandelo mabini omdumba amacwecwe amabini akufutshane ayahlikihla njengoko behamba ecaleni kwempazamo.

Ukuba sisuka kwindawo esebenzayo yeerges, sifumana iindawo ezingasebenziyo. Kule mimandla, ukwaphuka kuyagcinwa ngokungathi zizikrelemnqa zomhlaba. Ukuqhelaniswa kweendawo eziqhekekileyo kuyahambelana nendlela yokuhamba kweplate ngexesha lokusekwa kwayo. Ke ngoko, ezi zakhiwo zibalulekile xa kusenziwa imephu kwicala lokuhamba kweplate.

Enye indima yokuguqula iziphene kukubonelela ngeendlela zokunqunyulwa kolwandle, okwenziwe kwimiphetho yoluhlu, Uhanjiswa kwiindawo zokutshatyalaliswa. Le mimandla apho iipleyiti zitshatyalaliswayo kwaye zangeniswa kwakhona kwisambatho somhlaba zibizwa ngokuba yimisele yolwandle okanye imimandla yokuthimba.

Ziphi ezi mpazamo?

Sika kwimpazamo yeSan Andrés

Uninzi lweziphene eziguqulwayo zifumaneka kulwandlekazi. Nangona kunjalo, njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili. kukho imiphetho yeepleyiti ezahlukeneyo. Ke ngoko, ezinye iimpazamo zinqumla kuqweqwe lwelizwekazi. Owona mzekelo udumileyo ngu Iphutha leSan Andreas eCalifornia. Le mpazamo ibangela iinyikima ezininzi esixekweni. Lolo ulwazi lwakhe lokuba ifilimu yenziwa ngokulinganisa intshabalalo ebangelwe kukusilela.

Omnye umzekelo yimpazamo yeAlpine eNew Zealand. Impazamo yaseSan Andreas idibanisa iziko lokwandiswa elibekwe kwiGulf of California kunye nommandla weCascade subduction kunye neMendocino Transforming Fault, ebekwe kunxweme loMntla-ntshona waseMelika. Ipleyiti yePasifiki ehamba kwicala elisemantla ntshona kuyo yonke impazamo yeSan Andreas. Ukulandela le ntshukumo iqhubekayo, kule minyaka idlulileyo indawo yaseBaja California inokuba sisiqithi esahlukileyo ukusuka kunxweme lonke olusentshona eUnited States naseKhanada.

Kuba oku kuyakwenzeka kwisikali sejoloji, akubalulekanga ukuba nexhala ngoku. Yintoni ekufuneka ibe yinkxalabo epheleleyo umsebenzi wenyikima odala impazamo. Zininzi iintshukumo zenyikima ezenzeka kwezi ndawo. Iinyikima zimisela iintlekele, ukulahleka kwepropathi kunye nobomi. Izakhiwo zaseSan Andrés zikulungele ukumelana neenyikima. Nangona kunjalo, kuxhomekeke kubuzaza bemeko, kunokubangela iintlekele zokwenyani.

Njengoko ubona, umhlaba wethu nolwandle kunzima ukuluqonda. Ukusebenza kwayo kuyinkimbinkimbi kwaye ukufunyanwa kwayo kuba yimfuneko ngakumbi. Ngolu lwazi ungafunda okuninzi malunga neempazamo eziguqulwayo kunye neziphumo zomhlaba kunye noncedo lwaselwandle.


Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.