Iimpawu zeoksijini

iimpawu zeoksijini

Siyazi ukuba ioksijini yigesi ekufuneka siyiphefumle kwaye yenye yeemeko zokuphuhlisa ubomi njengoko sisazi. I iimpawu zeoksijini Zininzi ezingeyomfuneko kuthi. Noko ke, abantu abaninzi abazazi.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba zeziphi iimpawu eziphambili ze-oksijini, iimpawu zayo kunye nokunye okuninzi.

Yintoni ioksijini

iimpawu zeoksijini

Ioksijini yinto yekhemikhali ehlelwa njengengeyiyo eyentsimbi. Ngokuqhelekileyo ifumaneka kwindawo enegesi kwaye ininzi kwi-atmosfera yoMhlaba. Inyaniso, Iquka malunga ne-20,8% yomthamo wangoku we-atmosfera kwifom yayo ye-molecular, i-O2. Kwindalo yonke yinto yesithathu eyona nto ininzi, emva kwe-hydrogen kunye ne-helium. Ioksijini yinxalenye ebalulekileyo yobomi njengoko siyiqonda, kwaye ibaluleke ngakumbi ekwenziweni kweemolekyuli zamanzi, i-H2O, xa idityaniswe nehydrogen.

Ngenxa yendalo yayo esebenzayo, ioksijini (O) ayifane ifumaneke kwimo yayo yokuqala. Endaweni yoko, ihlala ihlangana nezinye iiathom zeoksijini ukwenza iimolekyuli okanye idibane nezinye izinto ukwenza iikhompawundi zemichiza.

Ngokuqhelekileyo, i-molecule ye-oksijini ikwimeko ye-diatomic (O2) phantsi koxinzelelo oluqhelekileyo lwegumbi kunye nobushushu. Nangona kunjalo, Ngaphantsi kweemeko ezithile zokusingqongileyo, inokubakho njengemolekyuli ye-triatomic (ozone O3). Ngokomzekelo, imolekyuli ye-ozone ekwistratosphere yenziwa kukonakala kweO2 kukukhanya kweultraviolet. Kwelinye icala, i-ozone kwitroposphere iveliswa ngenxa yokusebenzisana kwe-photochemical phakathi kwenitrogen oxides kunye ne-volatile organic compounds.

Ngenxa yokusebenza kwayo okuphezulu, ii-athomu zale elementi zinokufumaneka kuluhlu olubanzi lweekhompawundi ze-organic kunye ne-inorganic kwiplanethi yonke, ekhoyo kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zomcimbi. Ngenxa yoko, yinto eqhelekileyo kakhulu kwihlabathi nakwindalo iphela.

Iimpawu zeoksijini

umjikelo weoksijini

Ezi zezona zinto zaziwa kakhulu kwaye ziluncedo zeoksijini:

  • Isimboli yekhemikhali kunye nenombolo yeathom: Ioksijini imelwe sisimboli ethi "O" kwitafile ye periodic kwaye inenombolo yeatom yesi-8, okuthetha ukuba ineeproton ezisi-8 kwinucleus yayo.
  • Isimo somzimba: Kwiqondo lobushushu begumbi, ioksijini ikwimo yegesi, yenza imolekyuli iO2. Le yeyona ndlela ixhaphakileyo yeoksijini kwiatmosfera yomhlaba.
  • Ayinambala, ayinavumba kwaye ayinancasa: Ioksijini yigesi engenambala, ayinavumba, kwaye ayinancasa, nto leyo ethetha ukuba asinakuyibona ngezivamvo zethu.
  • Ukuphinda kusebenze: Ioksijini iyasebenza kakhulu. Iyakwazi ukusabela ngeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zezinto, kwaye le propati ibalulekile kwiinkqubo zokutsha kunye nokuphefumla kwezinto eziphilayo.
  • Inkxaso yobomi: Ioksijini ibalulekile ekuphefumleni kwe-aerobic kwizinto ezininzi eziphilayo, kuquka nabantu. Kule nkqubo, ioksijini isetyenziswa ziiseli ukuvelisa amandla.
  • Ukutsha: Ioksijini iyimfuneko ekutshiseni. Xa idityaniswe nezinto ezinokutsha, ezifana nekhabhoni kwinkqubo ye-oxidation, ivelisa ubushushu nokukhanya. Oku kubalulekile kwishishini kunye nasekhitshini, umzekelo.
  • Ukunyibilika: Ioksijini iyanyibilika emanzini, nto leyo eyenza ukuba izinto eziphila emanzini, njengentlanzi, ziyifumane emanzini ukuze ziphefumle.
  • Ukuxinana: Ioksijini ixinene kunomoya, oku kuthetha ukuba idla ngokuqokelelana emazantsi eendawo ezivaliweyo. Le propati ineempembelelo kukhuseleko kwiindawo zoshishino.
  • Usetyenziso lwemizimveliso: Ioksijini isetyenziswa kwizicelo ezahlukeneyo zoshishino, ezifana nentsimbi yokuwelda kunye nokusika, ukuveliswa kwentsimbi kunye neglasi, kunye nokuveliswa kweekhemikhali.
  • Iziphumo zokusingqongileyo: I-oksijeni ibalulekile kwiinkqubo zendalo ezifana ne-oxidation yezinto eziphilayo ezibolayo kunye nokwakheka kwee-ozone layers kwi-stratosphere, ekhusela uMhlaba kwimitha ye-ultraviolet.

Imvelaphi kunye nokufumanisa

umoya ukuphefumla

Nangona ezinye iimpawu zeoksijini zaziqondwa ukususela kumaxesha amandulo ngokufunda umoya, akuzange kube ngowe-1772 apho. UCarl Wilhelm Scheele, usokhemesti waseSweden, wafumanisa ioksijini njengento ebalulekileyo. Ebudeni bovavanyo lokutshisa i<em>mercury oxide, waphawula ukukhululwa “komoya emlilweni.”

Ebudeni bexesha elifanayo, kwakukho nezinye izazinzulu ezafumanisa into efanayo nekaJoseph Priestley, umfundisi waseBritani. Baye benza iimvavanyo ezifanayo kwaye bayinika igama elithi "dephlogisticated air."

Emva kwemisebenzi yakhe yokuqala, u-Antoine de Lavoisier wazinikezela izifundo zakhe kuhlalutyo lwe-oxidation kunye nokutsha. Wayikhanyela inkolelo yangaphambili yobukho be-“phlogiston,” ekucingelwa ukuba yinto efumaneka kuzo zonke izibaso. Endaweni yoko, yachaza ubukho bekhemikhali entsha: ioksijini.

UJohn Dalton wadala ithiyori yakhe yeathom ngowe-1808. Le ngcamango yabonisa ukuba ikhemikhali nganye yayineathom enye yaye elona nani lincinane linokubakho le elementi nganye lisetyenziswe ukwenza imixube. UDalton wayekholelwa ukuba i-chemical formula yamanzi yayiyi-H O, nangona oku kwafunyaniswa ukuba ayichanekanga. Eyona fomyula yamanzi yi-H2O.

Ngo-1877, iingcali zefiziksi uRaoul Pictet kunye noLouis Paul Cailletet bakwazi ukufumana ioksijini engamanzi, nangona ubungakanani babunganelanga ukuyihlola. Nangona kunjalo, usokhemisti uJames Dewar wakwazi ukufumana isixa esaneleyo seoksijini engamanzi ukuze ahlalutywe ngakumbi ngo-1891. Ngo-1895, indlela yokuqala yokwenza ioksijini elulwelo oluxabisekileyo kwezorhwebo yasekwa.

Ezinye iimpawu zeoksijini

Phantsi kobushushu obuqhelekileyo kunye neemeko zoxinzelelo, ioksijini ayibonakali ngenkangeleko kwaye ayinambala, ivumba, okanye incasa. Ioksijini inyibilika ngakumbi emanzini kunenitrogen: Amanzi amatsha ane-6,04 ml yeoksijini ilitha nganye kwaye amanzi olwandle ane-4,95 ml ilitha nganye.

Kwiqondo lobushushu le--182,95 °C, ioksijini inokutshintsha ukusuka kwimo yayo yegesi ukuya kwimeko yolwelo, inkqubo eyaziwa ngokuba yi-condensation. Kwiqondo lobushushu elisezantsi nangakumbi, -218,79 °C, inokutshintsha ukusuka kulwelo ukuya kwisiqina okanye umkhenkce. Ebudeni bale nkqubo, ioksijini iba nombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka.

Iisotophu zeoksijini ziyinkalo ebalulekileyo yophando lwezenzululwazi. Ezi isotopes ziintlobo zeathom zeoksijini ezinamanani ahlukeneyo ee-neutron, ezibangela iiyantlukwano kubunzima beatom. Zisetyenziswa kwiinkalo ezahlukeneyo, kuquka igeology, iklimatology, kunye nebhayoloji.

Kwi-geology, i-oxygen isotopes isetyenziselwa ukufunda i-paleoclimate kunye ne-paleoenvironments ngokuphonononga i-oxygen isotope ratios kumatye e-sedimentary. Kwi-climatology, zisetyenziselwa ukufunda utshintsho lwemozulu oludlulileyo ngokulinganisa i-oxygen isotope ratios kwi-ice cores. Ukongeza, kwibhayoloji, ii-isotopes zeoksijini zisetyenziselwa ukulandelela iipatheni zokufuduka kwezilwanyana kunye nokuqonda indlela izilwanyana eziziqhelanisa ngayo neendawo ezahlukeneyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neempawu ze-oksijini kunye neempawu zayo.


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