Iipropati ze-aluminiyam

iimpawu ze-aluminiyam

I-aluminiyam sisixhobo sesinyithi esimelwa luphawu "Al" kwitheyibhile yeperiodic kwaye yeyona nto yesithathu ixhaphakileyo kuqweqwe loMhlaba: i-8% yoqweqwe loMhlaba iqulethe ialuminiyam kwiikhompawundi ezahlukeneyo. Zininzi iimpawu ze-aluminiyam eyenza ibe sisinyithi esisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwihlabathi jikelele.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba zeziphi iimpawu ze-aluminium, ukubaluleka kwayo kunye nokunye okuninzi.

Imbali ethile

ukusetyenziswa kwe-aluminiyam

IAluminiyam yabekwa yodwa kuqala 1825 yingcali yefiziksi yaseDanish uHC Orsted kwaye namhlanje, kunye nentsimbi, isinyithi esisetyenziswa kakhulu ngabantu.. Le elementi ikwafumaneka kuninzi lwamatye kunye nezinto eziphilayo. Nangona kunjalo, kwindalo ayifumaneki kwimeko yayo ecocekileyo, kodwa njengenxalenye ye-silicates kunye neeminerali ezininzi.

Ngenxa yobunzima bayo obulula, i-ductility elungileyo, ubomi benkonzo ende kunye nokumelana nokubola, yenye yezona zinyithi ziluncedo kwaye zisetyenziswa kakhulu ngabantu kwishishini. Isetyenziswa kwiindidi ezahlukeneyo zealloyi ukwenza inani elikhulu lempahla kunye nezikhongozeli, kunye neenxalenye zoomatshini abahlukeneyo.

Iipropati ze-aluminiyam

aluminiyam yesinyithi

Ezi zezinye zeepropathi zealuminiyam ezenza ukuba idume kwaye isetyenziswe kwihlabathi liphela:

  • UkuKhanya: I-aluminiyam yaziwa ngokukhanya okugqithisileyo. Ubuninzi bayo bumalunga nesinye kwisithathu sentsimbi, oko kuyenza ibe yeyona nto ifanelekileyo yokusetyenziswa apho kufuneka amandla aphezulu kunye nobunzima obuphantsi, njengakwi-aerospace kunye nokuveliswa kwemoto.
  • Umbane olungileyo kunye ne-thermal conductivity: I-Aluminiyam yi-conductor egqwesileyo yombane kunye nobushushu. Oku kuyenza ixabiseke kwizicelo ezifuna ugqithiso olusebenzayo lwamandla ombane okanye ukutshatyalaliswa kobushushu, njengeentambo zombane kunye nezinto zombane.
  • Ukuchasa umhlwa: I-Aluminiyam inomaleko we-oxide yendalo kumphezulu wayo oyikhuselayo ekudlekeni. Lo maleko ubhityileyo, uziphilisa ngokwawo unika ukuxhathisa okugqwesileyo kokutya, oko kuwenza ukuba ulungele ukusetyenziswa kwindawo efumileyo okanye enomhlwa.
  • Ukonakala kunye nokulula kokumila: I-Aluminiyam ithambile kwaye inokubunjwa kwiimilo ezahlukeneyo ngokuqengqeleka, ukukhupha kunye neenkqubo zokubumba. Oku kuyenza ibe yimathiriyeli eguquguqukayo yokwenza iinxalenye zesiko kunye namalungu.
  • Ukurisayikilisha: I-Aluminiyam inokuphinda isetyenziswe. Inokunyibilikiswa kwaye iphinde isetyenziswe ngokuphindaphindiweyo ngaphandle kokulahlekelwa iimpawu zayo ezisisiseko, iyenza ibe yinto ezinzileyo kunye neyokusingqongileyo.
  • Imbonakalo yobuhle: I-Aluminiyam inesilivere eqaqambileyo, enomtsalane eyenza ukuba idume kwizicelo zobuhle, njengokwenziwa kokupakishwa, iifreyimu zefestile kunye nezinto zokuhombisa.
  • Ukumelana nobushushu obuphantsi: Ngokungafaniyo nezinye izinto eziye zibe brittle kubushushu obuphantsi, i-aluminiyam igcina amandla ayo kunye nokungaguquguquki nakwiqondo lobushushu eliphantsi kakhulu, iyenza ibe luncedo kwizicelo ze-cryogenic.

ukusetyenziswa kwe-aluminiyam

iimpawu ze-aluminiyam

Eyona nkqubo ixhaphakileyo yokufumana i-aluminium ivela kwi-bauxite, iminerali eninzi emhlabeni. Le nkqubo idinga amandla amakhulu ombane, oku kuthetha ukuba yinkqubo ebiza kakhulu, kodwa umphumo uyinto eluncedo kunye nobomi obude (i-corrosion resistant) kunye neendleko eziphantsi kakhulu zokuphinda zisetyenziswe. Konke oku kuyanceda ukuba ixabiso elizinzileyo kwaye libe yinto yezoqoqosho.

Ialuminiyam yinto esembindini neguquguqukayo kuninzi lwamashishini oluntu, enezicelo ezingenakubalwa. Ukususela ekwenziweni kweengxenye zentsimbi kunye namacandelo oomatshini, zombini kwifom ecocekileyo kunye ne-alloys (ingakumbi abo bafaka isandla ekuqiniseni kwabo), ukuveliswa kwezibuko, izitya ezahlukeneyo, amaphepha e-aluminium, i-tetrahedra, i-telescopes kunye namacandelo adibeneyo.

I-aluminium ikhona kwimbali yoluntu ngendlela yetyuwa kwaye isetyenziselwa amayeza kunye nokucoca okomileyo. Kodwa ayizange ibonakale njengento ecocekileyo de kwangowe-1825, xa ingcali yefiziksi yaseDenmark uHC Orsted ikwazile ukufumana iisampulu ezingcolileyo nge-electrolysis. Kwiminyaka emibini kamva, uFriedrich Wöhler wafumana isampuli yokuqala ecocekileyo.

Ekuqaleni yayithathwa njengentsimbi exabisekileyo kwaye yaboniswa kunye neJewels Crown yaseFransi ngo-1855, kodwa s.Ukusetyenziswa kwayo ngokubanzi kunye neendleko eziphantsi kwenza ukuba ibe yintsimbi eqhelekileyo.

Ezinye iipropathi ze-aluminiyam: ukusebenza kwakhona, ukurisayikilishwa kunye netyhefu

I-Aluminiyamu iyasebenza kakhulu, nangona ixhathisa ukubola ngokusebenzisa umaleko we-aluminium oxide (Al2O3) eyenza ngeenxa zonke phambi kwe-oksijini kwaye ikhusela isinyithi esiseleyo kwi-corrosion. Iyakwazi ukuhlanjululwa ngokulula nge-hydrochloric acid (okanye i-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) kunye neentlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-acids kunye neziseko.

I-Aluminiyam inokuphinda isetyenziswe ngokugqibeleleyo ngaphandle kokutshintsha iipropati zayo ezibonakalayo, ezibonelela ngeenzuzo ezinkulu zoqoqosho ngaphezu kwezinye iintsimbi. Ukusetyenziswa kwamandla afunekayo kule nkqubo nako kuncinci kakhulu. (kuphela i-5% yenkqubo yemveliso yokuqala). Le aluminium ye-recast ibizwa ngokuba "yi-aluminiyam yesibini."

Ekubeni i-aluminium iyintsimbi ethambileyo kwaye ayichasananga kakhulu ne-mechanical traction, inokusetyenziswa okuninzi kodwa ayikhuthazwa njengento yolwakhiwo. Ngale ndlela, idla ngokudityaniswa nezinye izinyithi ukunceda ukuyiqinisa, njenge-magnesium, i-manganese, ubhedu, i-zinc kunye ne-silicon, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha kunye ne-titanium kunye ne-chromium.

Iingxube ze-aluminium zichongwa ngoluhlu:

  • Series 1000. Phantse nyulu. Malunga ne-99% yi-aluminiyam.
  • Series 2000. Ingxubevange yobhedu.
  • Series 3000. Ingxubevange equlathe manganese.
  • Uthotho 4000. I-alloys equlethe i-silicon.
  • Series 5000. ingxubevange magnesium.
  • Series 6000. Magnesium kunye nesilicon alloys.
  • Series 7000. Zinc ingxubevange.
  • Uchungechunge 8000. I-alloys kunye nezinye izinto zetsimbi kunye nezingezo zetsimbi.

Ngokuchasene noko bekukholelwa amashumi eminyaka, i-aluminiyam ayinabungozi ebantwini. Ayinatyhefu encinci kuba i-aluminiyam ukutya kufakwe kwimilinganiselo encinci ngokusebenzisa amathumbu. Nangona kunjalo, ukuphefumla uthuli lwe-aluminium okanye ukutya okuzaliswe yi-elementi kunokubangela ukonakala kwesibindi kunye nezintso, okanye iimpawu ze-neurotoxic.

Amanqanaba aphakamileyo e-aluminiyam nawo adityaniswa nokuqala kwesifo se-Alzheimer.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neempawu ze-aluminium kunye neempawu zayo.


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