Ifuthe lamaqondo obushushu abanjwe lungcoliseko

Ukukhutshwa kweegesi zegreenhouse

Isiphumo se greenhouse Yinto phantse wonke umntu aziva ngayo namhlanje. Uninzi luthi umphumo we greenhouse unyusa amaqondo obushushu ehlabathi kwaye uyonyusa ifuthe lokutshintsha kwemozulu. Kukwanxulumene nokufudumala komhlaba. Kodwa ngaba uyayazi ngenene indima yempembelelo yendlu eluhlaza, indlela eyenzeka ngayo kunye nefuthe layo emhlabeni.

Phambi kokuchaza ukuba yintoni na le greenhouse effect, ndiza kwenza ingxelo ukuze uyifunde le nto ngokubaluleka kwayo. "Ngaphandle kwesiphumo sendawo yokugcina izityalo, ubomi ngebungekho namhlanje njengoko sibazi njalo ngoba ngekhe kwenzeke". Oko kwathethi, ndiyathemba ukuba iyakufumana ukubaluleka okuyifaneleyo.

Ingcaciso ngeGreenhouse Effect

Oku kubizwa ngokuba "sisiphumo sombane oluhlaza" siqulathe ukunyuka kobushushu beplanethi zibangelwe sisenzo seqela elithile leegesi, ezinye zazo ziveliswa ngamandla ngumntu, ezifunxa imitha ye-infrared, ebangela umphezulu womhlaba kunye nendawo esezantsi yomaleko ojikeleze umoya ojikeleze ubushushu. Ngombulelo kwesi siphumo sokugcina kwendlu esinokuthi ubomi eMhlabeni bunokwenzeka, kuba, ukuba akunjalo, amaqondo obushushu aphakathi aya kuba malunga -88 degrees.

Ifuthe lamaqondo obushushu abanjwe lungcoliseko

Yintoni iigesi zegreenhouse?

Izinto ekuthiwa zii-greenhouse gases okanye ii-greenhouse gases, ezinoxanduva lwesiphumo esichazwe apha ngasentla, zezi:

  • Umphunga wamanzi (H2O)
  • Ikharbhon diokside (CO2)
  • Imethane (CH4)
  • I-nitrogen oxides (NOx)
  • IOzone (O3)
  • Iiklorofluorocarbons (CFC ezingezizo)

Nangona zonke (ngaphandle kwee-CFCs) ziyindalo, ukusukela oko Inguquko kwiMizi-mveliso kwaye ikakhulu ngenxa yokusebenzisa kakhulu amafutha ezinto ezisetyenziswayo kwimisebenzi yezothutho kunye nezothutho, kuye kwakho ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwezixa ezikhutshelwe emoyeni. Iimpawu zezi gesi zegreenhouse yile gcina ubushushuKe ngoko, ukuphakama kokuxinana kwezi gesi emoyeni, ubushushu obuncinci bunokuphuma.

Yonke into iyenziwa mandundu bubukho bezinye izinto ezenziwa ngabantu, ezinje ngokugawulwa kwamahlathi, okuthintele amandla ohlaziyo eatmosferi ekupheliseni ikhabhon diokside, oyena nobangela uphambili wesiphumo sokukhulisa ubushushu kuba ingoyena ukhupha kakhulu namhlanje.

Umphunga wamanzi

Umphunga wamanzi (H2O) onegalelo elikhulu kwimpembelelo yendalo yendalo kwaye yeyona inxulumene ngokuthe ngqo nemozulu kwaye, ke ngoko, incinci ilawulwa ngokuthe ngqo zizinto ezenziwa ngabantu. Kungenxa yokuba umphunga uxhomekeke ngamandla kubushushu bomhlaba (obungenakuguqulwa ngumsebenzi wabantu, ukuba sijonga iindawo ezinkulu), kwaye ngenxa yokuba umphunga wamanzi udlula emoyeni ngokujikeleza okukhawulezileyo, okuhlala ngekota nganye. iintsuku ezilithoba.

Umoya omdaka

I-Carbon dioxide (CO2) inegalelo kubushushu bemo yoMhlaba ekuhlala kubo, ukuba nje ukuhlala kwayo kuluhlu oluthile. Ngaphandle kwekharbhon diokside, uMhlaba ubungayi kuba ngumqobo womkhenkce, kodwa kwelinye icala, ukugqithisa kuthintela ukuphuma kobushushu emajukujukwini kwaye kubangele Ubushushu obugqithisileyo beplanethi. Ivela kwimithombo yendalo yomibini (ukuphefumla, ukubola kwezinto eziphilayo, imililo yehlathi lendalo) kunye ne-anthropogenic (ukutshiswa kwamafutha asefosili, utshintsho kusetyenziso lomhlaba (ikakhulu ukugawulwa kwamahlathi), ukutshiswa kwebiomass, imisebenzi yezemizi-mveliso, njl.

Ukukhutshwa kweCarbon dioxide
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
I-NASA yenza ividiyo ebonisa ikharbon diokside yeplanethi

Imethane

Yinto eyenzeka ngohlobo lwegesi kubushushu obuqhelekileyo kunye noxinzelelo. Ayinambala kwaye ayinasinyibilikisi emanzini kwinqanaba layo lolwelo. Iipesenti ezingama-60 zokukhutshwa kwayo kwihlabathi liphela yimvelaphi ye-anthropogenic, ikakhulu evela kwimisebenzi yezolimo kunye neminye imisebenzi yabantu. Nangona ikwavela ekuboliseni inkunkuma yendalo, imithombo yendalo, ukukhutshwa kwezibaso, njl. Kwiimeko apho kungekho oksijini.

Ukukhupha iMethane

Nitrogen oxides

I-nitrogen oxides (NOX) zii-nitrogen kunye neoksijini yeekhompawundi ezenza kwifom Ukutsha kunye neoksijini engaphezulu kunye namaqondo aphezulu obushushu. Zikhutshelwa emoyeni ukusuka kwimoto yokuphelisa (ngakumbi idizili kunye nokutsha), ukutshiswa kwamalahle, ioyile, okanye igesi yendalo, kwaye ngexesha leenkqubo ezinje nge-arc welding, electroplating, metal etching, kunye ne-dynamite detonation.

Ozone

IOzone (O3), kubushushu bemozulu kunye noxinzelelo, yirhasi engenambala kunye nevumba elibi, elinokuthi kuthi gingci kwinani elikhulu libe luhlaza. Eyona ndawo iphambili kuyo yeyokuba sisidibanisi esomeleleyo kakhulu, saziwa ikakhulu ngendima ebalulekileyo esiyidlalayo emoyeni. I-Stratospheric ozone isebenza njengecebo lokucoca ulwelo ayidluli Imitha yelanga eyingozi kumphezulu womhlaba. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-ozone ikhona kweyona ndawo iphantsi yomoya (troposphere), inokubangela, kwindawo yoxinaniso olwaneleyo, ukonakalisa utyani.

Umngxunya weozone

Ii-CFC

Iiklorofluorocarbons, ezikwabizwa ngokuba zii-CFCs, zithathwa kwiihydrocarbon kwaye, ngenxa yokuzinza okuphezulu kweekhemikhali zomzimba, zisetyenziswe ngokubanzi njengezipholisi, izixhobo zokucima kunye nezixhobo zokuhambisa iiarosol. Ukwenziwa kunye nokusetyenziswa kweeklorofluorocarbons zazingavumelekanga Inkqubo yaseMontreal, kuba bahlasela umaleko we-ozone ngokuphendula ngamachiza. Itoni enye yee-CFC iya kuvelisa ifuthe lobushushu behlabathi kwiminyaka eli-100 emva kokukhutshwa kwayo emoyeni ilingana namaxesha angama-4000 umlinganiso ofanayo wekhabhon dayoksayidi (CO2).

Iziphumo zokunyuka kwesiphumo sendawo yokugcina izinto

Njengoko sele sibonile, umphumo we-greenhouse "awubi" kule filimu, kodwa ukunyuka kwayo okuqhubekayo. Njengokuba imisebenzi yabantu isanda, sibona ukuba ukunyuka kwegesi ekrwada kuyanda njani kwaye njani ixesha ngalinye yandisa ngakumbi amaqondo obushushu aphakathi komhlaba. Oku kunokuba neziphumo ezibi kakhulu kokusingqongileyo nakubantu nakwindlela yabo yobomi

Iziphumo ezinokuthi zibangele umphumo wegreenhouse onokubangela zezi:

  • Ukwanda kubushushu obuphakathi bomhlaba.
  • Ukonyuka kwembalela kwezinye iindawo kunye nezikhukula kwezinye.
  • Ubuninzi obuphezulu bokwakheka kwenkanyamba.
  • Ukunyibilika okuqhubekayo kwee-cap polar, kunye nokunyuka okulandelayo kumanqanaba olwandle.
  • Ukonyuka kwemvula kwihlabathi liphela (kuya kunetha iintsuku ezimbalwa nangakumbi ngamandla).
  • Yandisa inani leentsuku ezishushu, ziguqulelwe kumaza obushushu.
  • Ukutshatyalaliswa kwendalo.

Ngokutyikitywa kutshanje Isivumelwano saseParis Amazwe asamkeleyo anenjongo yokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi engcolisa umoya osingqongileyo oya emoyeni, oko ke kunceda ukunciphisa iziphumo ezibi zokutshintsha kwemozulu. Uluntu lwenzululwazi luqhube izifundo ezininzi apho kugqitywe kwelokuba ukuba amaqondo obushushu aphakathi kweplanethi anyuke ngaphezulu kweedigri ezimbini zecelsius, iziphumo zingangaguquguquki. Kungenxa yoko le nto babeke ubuninzi be-CO2 yoxinaniso kwiplanethi kwi-400 ppm. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, olu xinzelelo luye lwadlula kwiminyaka emibini ilandelelana.

Iziphumo ezingalunganga zegesi ezigcina ubushushu ebantwini

I-NO2 inokubangela iziphumo kwimpilo nakwintlalo-ntle yabantu, ibangele ukucaphuka kwimpumlo yempumlo kunye nokonakalisa inkqubo yokuphefumla ngokungena kwiindawo ezinzulu zemiphunga, nangokufaka igalelo ekubunjweni ukuwa kwekhephu.

Ngokwenxalenye yayo, i-SO2 iphendula ngamanzi asesibhakabhakeni ukuvelisa imvula eneasidi, icaphukisa amafinyila namehlo kwaye ibangele ukukhohlela xa uphefumla. Imvula eneasidi nayo inokuba neziphumo ezingangqalanga kwimpilo, kuba amanzi aneasidi anokunyibilikisa isinyithi kunye nezinto eziyityhefu emhlabeni, ematyeni, kwimijelo nakwimibhobho aze emva koko azise kwiinkqubo zamanzi okusela ukuze zisetyenziswe ngabantu, zivelise ukunxila.

Ukuwa kwekhephu

Iziphumo ezingundoqo zezi gesi kwindalo esingqongileyo yimvula eneasidi. Isenzeko semvula eneasidi (kubandakanya ikhephu, inkungu nombethe weasidi) ineziphumo ezibi kokusingqongileyo, kuba ayichaphazeli kuphela umgangatho wamanzi, kodwa ikwachukumisa nomhlaba, i-ikhosistim ngokunjalo, ingakumbi kuhlaza. Esinye isiphumo semvula eneasidi kukwanda kwe ubumuncu bamanzi amatsha kwaye ngenxa yoko ukwanda kwesinyithi esinetyhefu enzima ebangela ukuwa kwamatyathanga e-trophic kunye nenkqubo yokuzala kwentlanzi, kugweba imilambo kunye namachibi ekunciphiseni kodwa okungenakoyiswa kwizilwanyana zabo.

Imvula eneasidi ikwanazo neziphumo ezibi ngaphakathi kokusingqongileyo ezidolophini, kwelinye icala, ukubola kwezakhiwo, ukuthotywa kwamatye eechedrals kunye nezinye izikhumbuzo zembali, kwelinye icala, ukuthanda inkqubo yokuphefumla ebantwini, esele ikhankanyiwe. .

Izityalo zamandla enyukliya, esinye sezizathu zongcoliseko lomoya
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Yintoni imvula eneasidi?

ukuwa kwekhephu

Umsi wemifanekiso

Esinye isiphumo se-asidi yeegesi yinto eyaziwa ngokuba yi-smog; eyi-anglicism eyenziweyo kumanyano lwamagama umsi (umsi) nenkungu (inkungu) luhlobo longcoliseko lomoya oluvela ekufakweni komsi kwinkungu (ukusuka kwenye ierosol ukuya kwenye ierosol). Ukutshaya okungwevu okanye umsi wemizi-mveliso kukungcoliseka komoya okuveliswa umqala nesalfure. Owona mthombo uphambili wongcoliseko olwenza igrey smog kukutsha kwamalahle, anokuphakama nesalfure. Kukho umsi we-photochemical smog ovela kwizinto eziqulathe initrojeni kunye nomsi womlilo wemoto, oxutywe phantsi kweempembelelo zemitha yelanga evelisa igesi ye-ozone, eyityhefu kakhulu.

I-Photochemical smog, ungcoliseko lomoya

Yintoni esinokuyenza ukunciphisa isiphumo sokugcina?

Ukukhutshwa kweegesi kufuneka kulawulwe kwizikali ezimbini ezahlukeneyo, kuxhomekeke ekubeni zibhekisa kukhupho kwizithuthi okanye kushishino ngokubanzi.

Iitraki kunye neenjini zemoto zingumthombo obaluleke kakhulu woku kungcola. Ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa, kuyacetyiswa ukuba kusetyenziswe zombini iindlela zokuthintela nokucoca iigesi ezikhutshwe yinjinjini ngaphambi kokuba zikhutshelwe emoyeni. Unokuba negalelo ekunciphiseni ukusebenza kwendlu engcolileyo ngala manyathelo alandelayo:

  • Sebenzisa izithuthi zikawonke-wonke, ukukhwela ibhayisikile okanye ukuhamba ngeenyawo.
  • Sebenzisa iinjini ezinobuchwephesha obungcolileyo obuncinci, umzekelo, iinjini ezifaka endaweni yezibaso kunye neefutha ezingcolisayo, umzekelo, igesi yendalo, i-alcohols, i-hydrogen okanye umbane.
  • Ukuphucula ukusebenza kweinjini ukuze iikhilomitha ezininzi zenziwe ngeelitha ezimbalwa zepetroli.
  • Guqula i-injini ukuze kuncitshiswe ukukhutshwa kwayo.
  • Yandisa iirhafu kunye neerhafu ekufuneka iimoto ezingcolileyo zihlawule kwaye zikhuthaze utshintsho lwazo kwezintsha. Oku kuyakukhuthaza abenzi beemoto ukunciphisa umsi kunye nokukhuthaza abathengi ukuba bathenge izithuthi ezicocekileyo.
  • Yenza imimandla yabahambi ngeenyawo kumaziko esixeko kwaye, ngokubanzi, kuthintele ukujikeleza kwezithuthi zabucala kwezinye iindawo zeedolophu.
Izithuthi zikawonke-wonke ukulwa ukwanda kwempembelelo yendlu eluhlaza

Sebenzisa izithuthi zikawonke-wonke

Ngale nto ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nesiphumo esisigcina siphila kodwa kubalulekile ukuba siyigcine ikwindawo ezinzileyo eyoneleyo ukuze ukwanda kwayo kungabangeli iintlekele zemozulu.


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  1.   URoberto sitsho

    Inqaku linomdla kakhulu, ndiyavuyisana nawe