Yintoni i-nilometer?

iimpawu nilometer

Kumaxesha amandulo, ezolimo zazixhomekeke kumanzi aphuma esibhakabhakeni. Kwiinkulungwane kamva, abantu baqalisa ukukwazi ukuphambukiswa la manzi ukuze kube lula ukulima. Kumaxesha amandulo isiko lokulinganisa ukuphuphuma kwemilambo emikhulu sele liqalile. AmaYiputa ayengabokuqala esiwaziyo ukulinganisa ukuhamba komNayile ukuze siqonde isivuno sonyaka, enoba sisivuno esikhulu okanye ukunqongophala kokutya, nendlala nokufa okwalandelayo. Apha kulapho ingqikelelo ye i-nilometer.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni i-nilometer, zeziphi iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

ezolimo kumaxesha amandulo

i-nilometer

Oku kuthembela kwemvula kwezolimo namhlanje akuqondwa lula ngabo bahlala kwizixeko ezikhulu kude nezenzo zezolimo, kodwa kwiYiputa, enye yezona mpucuko zibalulekileyo zamandulo, umNayile wawungumthombo wobomi. Enyanisweni, abaphandi abaninzi bathi ngulo mlambo owadala uFaro omkhulu waseYiputa. Kwakubaluleke kakhulu ukuba kwizixeko ezininzi babeka iimitha zemisinga yomlambo, ebizwa ngokuba yi-nilometers. Ezi isenokuba zizixhobo zokuqala zokulinganisa ukuhla nokuqukuqela kwemilambo.

Yintoni i-nilometer

linganisa umlambo ongumnayile

I-nilometer yayisetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ubunzulu bamanzi omlambo kwaye, esazi inqanaba ekufikelelwe kulo, kwakunokwenzeka ukuxela kwangaphambili xa umkhukula uya kwenzeka. Le milinganiselo isuka kubukhosi bokuqala baseYiputa phantsi koKumkani uGyr. Ezinye zilula, kwaye endaweni yeentsika, into abayenzayo kukukrola amanqaku okulinganisa kwiindonga zegumbi, njengoko besenza ngeendlovu. Baphezu kweendonga zoMnayile, ngoko bafumana ukuhamba, kwaye ngumlinganiselo onikiweyo. Lo mlinganiselo ulula wasetyenziswa ukuqonda ukubaluleka kwezikhukula, kwakukhe kwakho ileli yokwamkela umsinga.

Isakhiwo sinokwakhelwa ukuzikhusela, sinomphezulu ongqukuva okanye iphiramidi ngaphezulu (indawo emile okwephiramidi phezulu kwesakhiwo), nangona kamva iye yaguquka yaba zizakhiwo ezintsonkothileyo.

Iikubhite kunye nenani lomitha

imilinganiselo yomlambo we-nile

Uninzi lwababhali luthatha isikhukula seekubhite ezili-14 ukuya kwezili-16 njengowona mgangatho ulungileyo.. Kwirekhodi, amanani aphezulu athetha intshabalalo, ngelixa amanani asezantsi ekhokelela kwindlala. UPliny oMdala wachaza “iikubhite ezinethamsanqa” ezili-16 ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

… xa unyuko lwafikelela kwiikubhite ezilishumi elinambini kuphela (malunga neenyawo ezimashumi mabini), kwabakho indlala; kwishumi elinesithathu kuya kuthetha ukunqongophala; ishumi elinesine lizisa uvuyo; ukhuseleko ezilishumi elinesihlanu kunye neshumi elinesithandathu intabalala yovuyo okanye ulonwabo. Ngaphezulu kwaloo mzobo kwakuyintlekele kuba kwakuthetha umkhukula omkhulu onokutshabalalisa izityalo, izindlu, i-haystacks ... (Ukulungelelanisa ibinzana likaPliny).

Inokukora ukusuka kwi-11 ukuya kwi-16 leekubhite (IA IB ΙΓ ΙΔ ΙΕ ΙҀ ngesiGrike). Kuyimfuneko ukwazi ukuba iNayile yenye yeyona milambo inde ehlabathini (ngaphezu kweekhilomitha ezingama-6.600), ngoko ke ukuhamba kufutshane nalapho ifumana khona izikhukula kukhulu kunomsinga olinganiswe emlonyeni wawo, endaweni yendawo yomlambo. imitha kaNero enokulinganiswa phakathi kwe-14 ne-16. Imilinganiselo efanelekileyo yenziwa ngezithuba zeekubhite ezili-16. Abanye abaphandi bathi inokuba yile yaseMemphis, ekudala yaba likomkhulu lobukumkani bukaFaro.

E-Egypt, inokuba yayincinci njenge-nanometers ze-15 ecaleni kombhede womlambo ngexesha le-pharaonic.. Kukho nezinto eziphathwayo, ezifana nezo zikaMlawuli uTheodosius. Enye yezinto zamva nje ezifunyenweyo kumabhodlo esixeko samandulo saseYiputa iTomis kwiDelta yomNayile, kwaye abembi bezinto zakudala baseJiphutha nabaseMelika abawuvulileyo bakholelwa ukuba ulwakhiwo lwaso lwakhiwa ngenkulungwane yesi-1000 BC. C. Isetyenziswe malunga neminyaka eyi-2,40. Liyiqula elenziwe ngoluhlu lwamanyathelo ahla emhlabeni. Yakhiwe ngeebhloko ezinkulu ze-limestone kwaye ifikelela kububanzi be-XNUMX yeemitha.

Emva koko sebenzisa

Nangona yayiyimveliso yaseYiputa, yayisetyenziswa yimpucuko yamva njengamaGrike, amaRoma, kunye namanye amazwe kamva eMeditera. EYiputa, phantsi kolawulo lwamaSilamsi, eyona idumileyo yayiyiCairo 1, eyayisetyenziswa de kwayinkulungwane ye-XNUMX. I-9,5 yeemitha ubunzulu, ngoko idityaniswe nomlambo ngetonela. Embindini wayo kukho ikholamu esebenza ukulinganisa umkhukula. Malunga nama-20 afunyenwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, afunyenwe kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zeMpuma Ekufuphi.

KwiYiputa yamandulo, imitha kaNero yayisisixhobo esisetyenziselwa ukuqonda ukuhamba kwemilambo, ngale ndlela kwakunokwenzeka ukwazi ukuba umNayile uza kuphuphuma njani. ibhedi okanye iintsika ezineempawu ezichanekileyo zezakhiwo ezintsonkothileyo ezakhelwe le njongo.

Ukubonakaliswa kwayo ekuhambeni kwexesha kubonakala kuhambelana nokuchuma, ngoko i<em>nilometer ifumaneka kwimizobo, kwimifanekiso eqingqiweyo, kwiingqekembe nakumaxwebhu, nangona loo mizekelo yolwakhiwo lwamandulo isembalwa kakhulu.

Imijikelo yoMlambo umNayile

Umkhukula, obizwa ngokuba ngu-ajet- ngolwimi lwamandulo lwaseYiputa, wawungomnye wamaxesha onyaka amathathu amaYiputa amandulo awayewahlula ngawo unyaka.

Umgangatho wamanzi weNayile kwi-Elephantine ungaphantsi kweemitha ezi-6, nto leyo ethetha ukuba umhlaba omninzi awunakulinywa, nto leyo ekhokelela kwindlala kulo lonke ilizwe. Umgangatho wamanzi ngaphezu kweemitha ezisibhozo ukhokelele ekuphuphumeni kweelali, ukutshatyalaliswa kwezindlu kunye nokunikezelwa kwemijelo yokunkcenkceshela ingasetyenziswa.

Rhoqo ehlotyeni, iimvula ezinkulu kwiindawo eziphakamileyo zase-Ethiopia zibangela ukwanda okumangalisayo kumthamo wamanzi aqukuqela kumlambo iNayile evela kwimijelo. Phakathi kukaJuni noSeptemba, uMlambo umNayile wawuphuphuma utyhutyhe iYiputa, ukhukulisa amathafa ayingqongileyo. Xa amanzi ewutha malunga noSeptemba okanye ngo-Oktobha, abeka intlenga yentlenga etyebileyo eyingenelo ekuchumeni komhlaba olimekayo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-nilometer kunye neempawu zayo.


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